Unformatted text preview: Exam
N ame___________________________________ 1) Each of the follow ing is a function of the integumentary system,
A) excretion of salts and wastes.
B) synthesis of vitamin C.
C) provision of sensation.
D) maintenance of body temperature.
E) protection of underlying tissue. 1) 2) The two components of the integumentary system are the
A) epidermis and superficial fascia.
B) cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
C) epidermis and dermis.
D) integument and hypodermis.
E) cutaneous membrane and hypodermis. 2) 3) The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
A) dendritic cells.
E) adipocytes. 3) 4) T he tough "horny " superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the
A) stratum granulosum.
B) stratum corneum.
C) stratum spinosum.
D) stratum lucidum.
E) stratum germinativum. 4) 5) Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the
A) stratum granulosum.
B) stratum lucidum.
C) stratum corneum.
D) stratum germinativum.
E) stratum spinosum. 5) 6) Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________
E) inactive 6) 1 7) The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the
A) stratum corneum.
B) stratum lucidum.
C) stratum germinativum.
D) stratum spinosum.
E) stratum granulosum. 7) 8) T he layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as w ell as chemical and mechanical
injuries is the
C) stratum corneum.
D) sebum layer.
E) subcutaneous layer. 8) 9) C haracteristics of the epidermis include:
B) serves as U V radiation protection
C) contains desmosomes
E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 9) 10) A ll of the following are true of epidermal ridges,
A) contain increased numbers of free nerve endings.
B) produce patterns that are determined genetically.
C) cause ridge patterns on the surface of the skin.
D) extend into the dermis.
E) interconnect with the dermal papillae. 10) 11) ________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.
A) Basal cells
B) Merkel cells
C) Squamous cells
D) Dendritic cells
E) Melanocytes 11) 12) W ater loss from insensible perspiration
A) is negligible.
B) depends on apocrine sweat glands.
C) is too small to be measured reliably.
D) is approximately 0.5 liters a day.
E) al ways exceeds sensible perspiration. 12) 13) T he epidermis of the skin is composed of w hich type of tissue?
A) nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
B) simple squamous epithelium
C) transitional epithelium
D) areolar connective tissue
E) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 13) 2 14) The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the
A) stratum corneum.
B) stratum germinativum.
C) basal lamina.
D) stratum granulosum.
E) papillary layer.
15) The protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface is
A) eleid in.
C) collagen. 14) 15)
D) melanin. E) keratin. 16) T hin skin contains ________ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ________ layers.
A) 2; 3
B) 1; 2
C) 5; 6
D) 4; 5
E) 3; 4 16) 17) While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his
foot to the dermis. H ow many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?
E) 5 17) 18) T he primary pigments contained in the epidermis are
A) carotene and melanin.
B) melanin and chromatin.
C) xanthophyll and melanin.
D) carotene and xanthophyll.
E) melanin and chlorophyll. 18) 19) A n albino individual lacks the ability to produce
C) eleid in.
E) keratin. 19) 20) A ll of the following are true of the pigment melanin,
A) decreases in concentration w ithin cells during exposure to the sun.
B) is usually some shade of bro wn or black.
C) protects D N A from the damaging effects of U V radiation.
D) is produced by cells called melanocytes.
E) is produced from the amino acid tyrosine. 20)
21) C yanosis signifies that a patient
A) has oxygen - starved skin.
B) has been kept out of the sun.
C) has an allergic reaction.
D) has had too much sun.
E) has been exposed to cyanide. 21) 3 22) Jaun dice is indicated by
A) a yellowish skin coloration.
B) a brown skin coloration.
C) an orange skin coloration.
D) a bluish skin coloration.
E) a reddish skin coloration. 22) 23) Exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of
E) hemoglobin. 23) 24) T he ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of
E) carotene 24) 25) W hich of the follow ing is
an effect of ultraviolet radiation?
A) w rinkles
B) production of cholecalciferol w ithin epidermal cells
D) chromosomal damage in germinative cells or melanocytes
E) increased activity by melanocytes 25) 26) A n important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is
A) vitamin E.
B) vitamin C.
C) vitamin A .
D) vitamin D.
E) vitamin B. 26) 27) Types of skin cancers include
A) squamous cell carcinoma.
B) malignant melanoma.
C) basal cell carcinoma.
D) actinic keratosis.
E) A, B, and C 27) 28) Which of the following statements about rickets is
A) prevented by vitamin D
B) leads to skeletal deformity
C) is usually genetic
D) prevented by sunlight
E) leads to weak bones true? 4 28) 29) Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure on the skin. To
prevent possible abnormal bone development, w hat essential organic nutrient is necessary in the
A) vitamin C
E) protein 29) 30) Epidermal growth factor exerts w hich of these effects on the epidermis?
A) promotes cell division
B) stimulates keratin synthesis
C) speeds up glandular function
D) accelerates tissue repair
E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 30) 31) The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the
skin is the ________ layer.
D) h ypodermal
E) subcutaneous 31) 32) The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength
of the skin is the ________ layer.
D) h ypodermal
E) reticular 32) 33) The protein that permits stretching an d recoiling of the skin is
C) keratin. 33)
D) carotene. E) collagen. 34) Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed
E) melanocytis. 34) 35) A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage
A) heals slower than incisions made perpendicular to the lines of cleavage.
B) requires no sutures.
C) has a tendency to reopen.
D) does not affect the healing process.
E) closes and heals w ith relatively little scarring. 35) 5 36) While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it
remains peaked. This is a sign of
A) hydration intoxication.
C) water intoxication.
D) ad vanced skin cancer.
E) malfunctioning elastin. 36) 37) Stretch marks occur w hen
A) the skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded.
B) the hair follicles cease to produce hairs.
C) the skin is stretched in normal movements.
D) surgical incisions are made perpendicular to the skin's lines of cleavage.
E) athletes overextend a muscle. 37) - 38) From w hat structure does sensible perspiration occur?
C) 8 38)
D) 9 39) W hich layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards?
D) 4 6 E) 10
E) 5 40) W hich layer contains most of the accessory structures?
C) 3 40)
D) 4 41) A n intradermal injection is administered into w hich layer?
C) 3 E) 5
41) D) 4 42) W hich tissue is located in the region labeled "2"?
A) reticular connective tissues
B) cartilage and blood
C) adipose tissue
D) areolar connective tissue
E) stratified squamous epithelium E) 5
42) 43) A ll of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer,
A) contains many blood vessels.
B) is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane.
C) contains large amounts of adipose tissue.
D) permits independent movement of deeper structures.
E) is well supplied w ith nerves that pass into the skin. it 43) 44) A ccessory structures of the skin include all of the follow ing,
A) sebaceous glands.
B) hair follicles.
D) sweat glands.
E) nails. 44) 45) T he layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
A) hair bulb.
B) med ulla.
E) cuticle. 45) 46) Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by
C) soft keratin.
D) dermal papillae.
E) carotene cells. 46) 47) Lanugo is foun d
A) on the scalp.
B) on a fetus.
C) on the soles of the feet.
D) on the palms of the hands.
E) on the palms of the hands and on the soles of the feet. 47) 7 48) If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed,
A) the color of the hair w ill become lighter.
B) hair production w ill not be affected.
C) the hair matrix w ill lose its blood supply.
D) the texture of the hair w ill become coarser.
E) the hair produced by the follicle w ill change from terminal to vellus. 48) 49) Which statement about hairs is false?
A) Eyebrows are terminal hairs.
B) A terminal hair can detach but remain in the hair follicle as a club hair.
C) Club hairs are ingrow n hairs.
D) Vellus hairs are on the limbs of chil dren until puberty.
E) Terminal hairs are in the axilla. 49) 50) W hen the arrector pili muscles contract,
A) the skin changes color.
B) shiv ering occurs.
C) hairs are shed.
D) "goose bumps" are formed.
E) sweat is released from sweat glands. 50) 51) Each of the follow ing statements concerning hair is true,
one. Identify the exception.
A) Terminal hairs are heavy and more darkly pigmented than other types of hair.
B) The medulla is the soft core of the hair.
C) The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin.
D) Scalp hairs grow constantly throughout life.
E) Club hair is hair that has ceased grow ing. 51) 52) A common cause of dandruff is
A) inactive eccrine glands.
B) lack of sebaceous glands.
C) inflammation around sebaceous glands.
D) too many sebaceous glands.
E) inactive apocrine glands. 52) 53) G lands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.
B) apocrine sw eat
D) merocrine sw eat
E) ceruminous 53) 54) T he ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.
A) apocrine sw eat
E) merocrine sw eat 54) 8 55) Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.
A) merocrine sw eat
E) apocrine sw eat 55) 56) Earw ax is prod uced by ________ glands.
C) apocrine sw eat
D) eccrine sweat
E) merocrine sw eat 56) 57) M erocrine sweat contains ________ to protect against bacteria.
A) organic nutrients
B) w ater
E) metabolic wastes 57) 58) The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found
A) in the axillae.
B) on the palms of the hands.
C) on the chest.
D) on the upper back.
E) surrounding the genitals. 58) 59) Each of the follow ing statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum is true,
Identify the exception.
A) M ost sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands.
B) M ost sebaceous glands open into hair follicles.
C) Sebum functions to lubricate the hair and skin.
D) Acne involves inflammation of sebaceous glan ds.
E) Sebum can function as an antibiotic. one. 59) 60) ________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the bod y surface, ________ glands are located
w herever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas.
A) A pocrine; sebaceous; merocrine
B) M erocrine; apocrine; sebaceous
C) M erocrine; sebaceous; apocrine
D) A pocrine; merocrine; sebaceous
E) Sebaceous; merocrine; apocrine 60) 61) W hich of the follow ing happens if body temperature rises above normal?
A) Sweat gland activity decreases.
B) T he activity of melanocytes increases.
C) Blood flow to the skin increases.
D) Circulation in the skin decreases.
E) Evaporative cooling stops. 61) 9 62) Merocrine sweat glands
A) increase in number and activity w ith aging.
B) secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin.
C) produce organic secretions that are metabolized by bacteria to produce body odor.
D) are compound alveolar glands.
E) primarily function in lubricating the hairs.
63) A ll of the following are true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands,
A) is more than 99 percent w ater.
B) contains electrolytes and waste products.
C) helps to prevent bacteria from colonizing the skin.
D) helps cool the body w hen it evaporates.
E) produces the body odor characteristic of "sweating." 62) that it 63) 64) The nail body covers the
A) nail root.
B) lun ula.
C) h yponychium.
D) nail bed.
E) free edge. 64) 65) N ail production occurs at the nail
B) h yponychium.
E) bed. 65) 66) T he cuticle around a nail is the
B) lun ula.
C) h yponychium.
D) free edge.
E) eponychium. 66) 67) T he stratum corneum just under the free - edge of a nail is the
A) h yponychium.
B) nail root.
E) lun ula. 67) 68) A child w ho skins his knee in a fall has a(n)
E) puncture. 68) 10 69) In a penetrating wound, ________ di vide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.
A) muscle cells
B) granulation cells
C) dendritic cells
E) fibroblasts 69) 70) The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a
A) third - degree burn.
B) first- degree burn.
C) partial - thickness burn.
D) second - degree burn.
E) epidermal burn. 70) 71) If a fair - skinned person is sunburned, w hy does his or her skin turn red?
A) The blood flow to the skin increases.
B) M elanocytes increase production of red pigments.
C) T he number of red melanocytes in the skin increases.
D) Increased heat causes the skin to turn red.
E) The blood supply to the skin decreases. 71) 72) Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
A) stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective - tissue components of the skin even after
B) cells of the stratum germinati vum cannot migrate to other positions in the skin.
C) contraction in the area of the injury brings cells of adjacent strata together.
D) fibroblasts in the dermis can give rise to new germinal cells in the epidermis.
E) the epidermis of the skin has a rich supply of small blood vessels. 72) 73) The follow ing are stages in the regeneration of skin follow ing an injury.
1. blood clot/scab formation
2. cellular migration
3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
4. epidermis covers scar tissue
The correct order for these events is:
A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 2, 4, 1, 3
C) 3, 4, 1, 2
D) 4, 3, 1, 2 73) E) 4, 3, 2, 1 74) Scar tissue is the result of
A) large numbers of collagen fibers and relati vely few blood vessels in the injured area.
B) increased numbers of epidermal layers in the area of the injury.
C) a thickened stratum germinativum in the area of the injury.
D) a lack of sebaceous glands in the injured area.
E) increased numbers of fibroblasts in the injured area. 74) 75) D uring repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce
E) keloid 75) 11 76) Treatment of full - thickness burns includes which of the follow ing?
A) assisting tissue repair
B) preventing infection
C) increasing caloric intake
D) replacing fluids
E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 76) 77) C harlie is badly burned in an accident. When he reaches the emergency room, the examining
physician finds that he can remove entire hair follicles from C harlie's arm w hen he gently pulls on
a hair w ith his forceps. C harlie is suffering from a(n)
A) first- degree burn.
B) partial - thickness burn.
C) epidermal burn.
D) third - degree burn.
E) second - degree burn. 77) 78) A full - thickness burn injury can be life threatening. A physician treating a burn victim would
likely order all of the follow ing,
A) IV (intravenous) fluids and electrolytes.
B) skin grafts.
C) ice packs applied to the burn area.
D) a high - calorie diet.
E) antibiotics. 78) 79) T he effects of aging on the skin include
A) an increased blood supply to the dermis.
B) a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands.
C) increased production of vitamin D.
D) thickening of the epidermis.
E) an increased number of sweat glands. 79) 80) W rinkles in elderly individuals are the result of
A) decreased thickness of the dermis.
B) loss of elastic filaments in the reticular layer of the dermis.
C) the loss of glands and hair follicles from the skin.
D) increased keratinization of the epidermis.
E) increased production of epidermis. 80) 81) Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person?
A) Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly.
B) Skin repairs take longer in the elderly.
C) There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the elderly.
D) T he epidermis is thinner in the elderly.
E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 81) 82) A ccumulations of fluid w ithin the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis are
called _______. 82) 83) Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of ________ perspiration. 83) 12 84) T he pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called
________. 84) 85) M elanin is produced by melanocytes w ithin the stratum ________. 85) 86) The skin appearance that results from dark - red hemoglobin is called ________. 86) 87) Four signs useful for determining if a suspicious mark on the skin is melanoma follow the
A BC D mnemonic. Identify w hat each letter abbreviates. 87) 88) A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the
structure of the skeletal system is ________. 88) 89) The most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed ________. 89) 90) V itamin D 3 is important for proper ________ development. 90) 91) Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinativum is called ________. 91) 92) A bruise turns "black and blue" because of ________ in the dermis. 92) 93) T he drug ________ increases dermal blood flow and makes the skin red. 93) 94) Fine hairs (like " velvet") that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called
________. 94) 95) Coarse pigmented hairs are called ________. 95) 96) T he substance called sebum is commonly know n as ________. 96) 97) In the condition know n as erythema, the skin takes on a(n) ________ color. 97) 98) A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is
called a(n) ________. 98) 99) A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called a(n) ________. 99) 100) T he combination of fibrin clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed
in injured skin is called ________. 100) 101) If epithelial cell migration cannot cover a wound, ________ may be required. 101) 102) A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called ________. 102) 13 103) M any medications can be administered transdermally by applying patches that contain the medication to the
surface of the skin. These patches can be attached any where on the skin except the palms of the hands and the
soles of the feet. Why?
104) Explain w hy the rate of dehydration is greater w hen a person is immersed in sea water than w hen in fresh
105) In a condition know n as sunstroke, the victim ap pears flushed, the skin is warm and dry, and the bod y
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