ch06 - Exam N ame 1 W hich of follow ing is a function of...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Exam N ame___________________________________ 1) W hich of follow ing is a function of the skeletal system? A) calci um homeostasis B) blood cell production C) body support D) protection of internal organs E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 1) 2) Which of the following are components of the skeletal system? A) cartilage B) bones C) ligaments D) tendons E) other tissues that connect bones 2) 3) Which of the follow ing bones is classified as "irregular" in shape? A) patella B) vertebra C) metatarsal D) frontal 3) E) ulna 4) The tip of a long bone is called the A) epip hyseal plate. B) metaphysis. C) lamella. D) diaphysis. E) epiphysis. 4) 5) T he carpal bones are examples of ________ bones. A) irregular B) sesamoid C) flat 6) A rib is an example of a ________ bone. A) flat B) short 5) D) long E) short 6) C) sesamoid 7) Bones that develop w ithin tendons are called ________ bones. A) sutural B) tendon C) W ormian D) sutural E) long D) sesamoid E) irregular 7) 8) Small, oddly shaped bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones. A) sesamoid B) sutural C) irregular D) tendon E) sagittal 8) 9) ________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet. A) Flat B) Sesamoid C) Short D) Long E) Irregular 9) 1 10) T he humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone. A) long B) sesamoid C) irregular 10) D) flat E) short 11) The large proximal projection on the femur is termed the A) ramus. B) tubercle. C) tuberosity. D) trochanter. E) condyle. 11) 12) A hole through a bone is termed a A) fora men. B) facet. 12) C) tubercle. D) linea. E) ramus. 13) T he smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a A) condyle. B) head. C) crest. D) ridge. E) trochlea. 14) A shallow depression on a bone is termed a A) fossa. B) sulcus. C) line. D) fissure. E) facet. 13) 14) 15) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is know n as the ________. A) diaph ysis B) epiphysis C) medullary cavity D) metaphysis E) osseophysis 15) 16) W hich of the following labels best matches A) stem cell C) dissolves matrix 16) ? B) mature bone cell D) secretes organic matrix 17) Bone is com posed of ________ percent cells. A) 10 B) 50 C) 25 17) D) 15 E) 2 18) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called A) chondrocytes. B) osteoclasts. C) osteocytes. D) osteoprogenitor cells. E) osteoblasts. 18) 19) ________ are squamous stem cells that develop into osteoblasts. A) Osteoprogenitor cells B) Osteomed ullary cells C) Osteocytes D) Osteoclasts E) Squamous osteons 19) 2 20) T hrough the action of osteoclasts, A) an organic framework is formed. B) new bone is formed. C) fractured bones regenerate. D) bony matrix is dissol ved. E) osteoid is calcified. 20) 21) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a A) Volkmann's canal. B) Venetian canal. C) trabecula. D) lacuna. E) H aversian canal. 21) 22) Which of the following chemicals is A) collagen fibers B) calcium phosphate C) chondroitin sulfate D) calcium carbonate E) h ydroxyapatite 22) present in bone? 23) ________ account(s) for almost tw o- thirds of the weight of bone. A) Calcium carbonate B) Collagen fibers C) Water D) Fluori de E) Calcium phosphate 23) 24) ________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum. A) Osteoclast B) Chondroblast C) Osteoid D) Osteocyte E) Osteoprogenitor 24) 25) T he ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somew hat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering. A) protein - crystal B) h ydroxyapatite - crystal C) mineral - crystal D) protein - protein E) collagen - fiber 25) 26) The most abundant cell type in bone is A) osteoclasts. B) osteoblasts. C) osteoprogenitor cells. D) osteocytes. E) osteolytes. 26) 3 27) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain A) blood cells. B) bone marrow. C) capillaries. D) chondroblasts. E) osteocytes. 27) 28) H o w A) B) C) D) E) 28) would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone? The bone would be more brittle. T he bone w ould be less flexible. T he bone w ould be more flexible. The bone would be less compressible. The bone would be stronger. 29) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called A) foramina. B) lacunae. C) medullary cavities. D) canaliculi. E) central canals. 29) 30) The central canal of an osteon contains A) bone marrow. B) osteocytes. C) lacunae. D) blood vessels. E) concentric lamellae. 30) 31) The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called A) lacunae. B) concentric lamellae. C) interstitial lamellae. D) osteons. E) trabeculae. 31) 32) The type of bone that is adapted to w ithstand stresses that arri ve from many directions is ________ bone. A) spongy B) osteon C) lamellar D) compact E) irregular 32) 33) The structural units of mature compact bone are called A) osteons. B) lacunae. C) osteocytes. D) canaliculi. E) lamellae. 33) 4 34) Fat is stored within the A) epiphysis. B) diaphysis. C) spongy bone. D) medullary cavity. E) metaphysis. 34) 35) W hich of the follow ing is a characteristic of bone? A) For strength, compact bone is organized into a mesh work of matrix called trabeculae. B) The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts. C) The matrix of the bone contains osteoclasts. D) N arrow channels pass through the matrix to allow for muscle attachment. E) T he matrix of bone is mostly collagen with very little calcium. 35) 36) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are A) proximal. B) anterior. C) parallel. D) radial. E) diagonal. 36) 37) T he femur can w ithstand ________ times the body weight without breaking. A) 10 to 15 B) 5 to 10 C) 30 D) 8 37) E) 3 38) ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone. A) Red B) G ray C) Yellow D) W hite E) Bl ue 38) 39) T he lining of the medullary cavity is called the A) perimysium. B) epimysium. C) endosteum. D) periosteu m. E) perichondrium. 39) 40) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles. A) Irregular B) Long C) Spongy D) Compact 40) E) Short 41) T he layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are A) epiphseal ridges. B) osteoid plates. C) circu mferential lamellae. D) concentric lamellae. E) trabeculae. 41) 42) Which statement is regarding calcium in bone matrix? A) Calcium is the organic part of the matrix. B) Calcium is secreted by osteoblasts into the matrix. C) Calcium provides flexibility to the bone matrix. D) O nce deposited, calcium cannot be removed from bone. E) Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatite. 42) 5 43) T he trabeculae of spongy bone A) are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis. B) are composed mostly of cartilage. C) w ill collapse under stress. D) are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone. E) are organized along stress lines. 43) - 44) Which structure is termed an osteon? A) 3 B) 4 44) C) 1 D) 2 D) 2 45) Which structure is characteristic of spongy bone? A) 5 B) 4 C) 1 E) 5 E) 3 45) 46) T he structure labeled "3" is the result of w hich process? A) bone cells adding matrix between existing osteons B) remodeling of compact bone C) surface growth of bone D) remodeling of spongy bone E) osteoporosis 46) 47) Identify the structures labeled "4." A) trabeculae B) concentric lamellae C) periosteum D) interstitial lamellae E) circumferential lamellae 47) 6 48) W here would osteoclasts be most active? A) 3 B) 2 48) C) 4 D) 1 E) 5 49) T he articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of w hat type of cartilage? A) h yaline cartilage B) synovial cartilage C) osseous cartilage D) elastic cartilage E) fibrocartilage 49) 50) The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as A) calcification. B) ossification. C) hardening. D) osteogenesis. E) remodeling. 50) 51) W hich of the follow ing is formed by intramembranous ossification? A) carpal bones B) femur C) clavicle D) roof of the skull E) the roof of the sk ull and the clavicle 51) 52) Endochondral ossification begins w ith the formation of a(n) A) membranous model. B) osteoblasts model. C) cartilage model. D) calcified model. E) fibrous connective - tissue model. 52) 53) The follow ing are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification. 1. E nlarged chondrocytes die. 2. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone. 3. C hondrocytes enlarge and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify. 4. Blood vessels in vade the perichondrium. 5. Perichondrial cells become osteoblasts and produce a thin shell of bone. 53) The correct order for these events is A) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2 B) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4 C) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2 D) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2 E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2 54) Secondary ossification centers occur A) in dermal bones. B) in the metaphyses. C) at the periosteum. D) in the epiphyses. E) in the diaphysis. 54) 7 55) Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells. A) mesenchy mal B) osteocyte C) osteoblast D) osteoclast E) osteoprogenitor 55) 56) Which of the follow ing statements about M arfan's syndrome is A) results in short, stubby fingers B) results from a mutation C) affects epiphyseal cartilages D) may also cause cardiovascular problems E) affects connective tissue genes 56) ? 57) Bone growth in length occurs by mitosis of A) cartilage cells in the diaph yseal side of the metaphysis. B) osteoblasts in the endosteum. C) concentric lamellae. D) growth of trabeculae. E) cartilage cells in the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis. 57) 58) Intramembranous ossification A) explains how a juvenile's bone can grow in length. B) occurs in the diaphysis of a long bone. C) occurs inside a bag of cartilage. D) occurs in all bones before birth. E) produces flat bones as in the bones of the roof of the skull. 58) 59) Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the A) periosteu m. B) distal epiphysis. C) metaphysis. D) proximal epiphysis. E) diaphysis. 59) 60) Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete A) calcium. B) collagen fibers. C) silica. D) hydroxyapatite. E) mesenchyme. 60) 61) Sup pose that epiphyseal lines appear in a 10- year - old's long bones. W hich of the follow ing statements is therefore ? A) Intramembranous ossification will enable further growth in length. B) More growth w ill occur during the teenage years as sex hormones stimulate rebuilding of growth plates. C) A dministraton of growth hormone will stimulate future bone gro wth in length. D) Osteoclasts w ill dissolve the metaphysis so length growth can continue until adulthood. E) T he epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible. 61) 8 62) D uring appositional growth A) bones grow longer. B) bones grow w ider. C) the epiphysis fuses w ith the diaphysis. D) osteoblasts are overw helmed by osteocytes. E) bone is replaced by cartilage. 62) 63) W hen the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone, A) long bones have reached their adult length. B) interstitial bone growth begins. C) appositional bone growth begins. D) the bone becomes more brittle. E) puberty begins. 63) 64) W hen cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaph ysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones A) become shorter. B) grow longer. C) become more porous and w eaker. D) become thicker. E) grow wider. 64) 65) A ccelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by A) elevated levels of estrogen. B) an excess of gro wth hormone. C) too much calciu m in the diet. D) high levels of vitamin D. E) too little thyroxine. 65) 66) W hen production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates A) increase slow ly. B) become narrower. C) accelerate rapidly, but mostly in thickness. D) are hardly affected. E) get w ider. 66) 67) The follow ing are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification: 1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized. 2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue. 3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers. 4. M esenchymal cells aggregate. 67) The correct order for these events is: A) 4, 1, 2, 3 B) 2, 3, 1, 4 C) 2, 1, 3, 4 9 D) 4, 2, 1, 3 - 68) W here does growth in length occur? A) 3 B) 2 68) C) 1 D) 4 E) 5 69) What type of tissue occurs at #1? A) fibrocartilage B) bone C) marrow tissue D) elastic tissue E) h yaline cartilage 69) 70) What process is show n at #6? A) length growth B) primary ossification C) secondary ossification D) width growth E) fracture repair 70) 71) Identify the structure at #4. A) spongy bone B) periosteum C) intramembranous bone D) mesenchy me E) h yaline cartilage 71) 10 72) Identify the structure labeled "2." A) diaph ysis B) metaphysis C) trabeculae D) epiphysis E) marrow cavity 72) 73) In normal adult bones, A) osteoclasts continue to be active long after osteoblast activity ceases. B) there is no turnover of minerals. C) exercise w ill have no effect on bone remodeling. D) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity, once bone has been formed. E) a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year. 73) 74) A lack of exercise could A) cause bones to become longer. B) result in porous and weak bones. C) cause bones to store more calcium. D) cause bones to lose their medullary cavity. E) cause bones to become thicker. 74) 75) W hen stress is applied to a bone, A) the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts. B) the bone compensates by becoming thinner in the region of stress. C) the bone becomes thin and brittle. D) osteoclast activity increases. E) it usuall y breaks. 75) 76) Excessive grow th hormone prior to puberty could result in A) osteoporosis. B) rickets. C) d warfism. D) giantism. E) osteopenia. 76) 77) Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, A) vitamin A . B) the hormone thyroxine. C) vitamin E. D) vitamin C. E) vitamin D. 77) 78) Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur? A) kidneys B) skin C) liver D) bone E) small intestine 78) 11 79) The most abundant mineral in the human body is A) hy drogen. B) calcium. C) potassium. D) phosphorus. E) sodium. 79) 80) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone A) testosterone. B) thyroid hormone. C) growth hormone. D) parathyroid hormone. E) calcitonin. 80) 81) The hormone calcitonin functions to A) stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts. B) decrease the rate of calcium absorption. C) stimulate osteoclast activity. D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood. E) decrease the rate of calcium excretion. 81) 82) Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the follow ing ways, A) increases the rate of calcium absorption. B) raises the level of calcium ion in the blood. C) decreases the rate of calcium excretion. D) stimulates osteoclast activity. E) inhibits calcitonin secretion. that it 82) 83) A child w ith rickets often has A) long fingers. B) frequent bruises. C) oversized facial bones. D) inadequate muscle development. E) bowed legs. 83) 84) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of A) sulfate. B) sodium. C) iron. D) calcium. E) potassium. 84) 85) H undreds of years ago explorers often died of scurv y. H ow can this bone - related disease be prevented? A) A mputate fractured limbs to prevent the spread of scurv y. B) Sup plement the diet w ith more calcium from meat. C) Sup plement the diet w ith fresh fruit rich in vitamin C. D) Increase levels of testosterone to stimulate bone repair. E) D rink more water to promote bone remodeling and repair. 85) 12 86) H o w is v itamin D (vitamin D 3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone? A) V itamin D replaces calcium in the skeleton. B) V itamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract so calcium is available for ossification and remodeling. C) V itamin D is produced by osteoblasts during endochondral ossification. D) V itamin D provides a framework for calcium in the matrix. E) V itamin D is regulated by osteoclast activity. 86) 87) The disease osteomalacia causes calcium loss from the skeleton, w hich would result in bones that are A) w eaker and more flexible. B) stronger and heavier. C) stronger and contain more spongy bone. D) more resistant to compression. E) weaker and more brittle. 87) 88) A fter a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the A) external callus. B) epip hyseal plate. C) condyle. D) fracture facet. E) dense tuberosity. 88) 89) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture. A) compression B) Colles C) displaced D) Pott E) greenstick 89) 90) While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, H eidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott fracture. W hat would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall? A) tachycardia B) h ypertension C) hematoma D) erythema E) cyanosis 90) 91) Put the follow ing steps of bone repair in correct sequence: 1. Cartilage in the external callus is replaced by bone. 2. A hematoma occurs. 3. A n internal callus forms at the site of injury. 4. Osteoclasts remodel the bone at the site of repair. A) 2, 3, 1, 4 B) 1, 2, 3, 4 C) 3, 1, 4, 2 91) 13 D) 4, 2, 3, 1 E) 2, 1, 3, 4 92) Osteoclast - activating factor does all of the following, A) is released by some cancer tumors. B) produces a severe osteoporosis. C) increases the activity of osteoclasts. D) is released in large amounts early in life. E) increases the number of osteoclasts. that it 92) 93) A condition in w hich bone becomes riddled w ith holes is called A) osteopenia. B) osteomalacia. C) osteoporosis. D) osteomyelitis. E) osteitis. 93) 94) The condition know n as osteopenia A) affects mostly women. B) only affects the femur. C) is rarely seen as people age. D) is caused by too much vitamin D in the diet. E) causes a gradual reduction in bone mass. 94) 95) If osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will become A) stronger. B) denser. C) calcified. D) thicker. E) osteopenic. 95) 96) W hy does osteoporosis affect more women than men? A) Men do not remodel the skeleton as fast as women. B) M en exercise more than women and therefore have less osteoporosis. C) Pregnancy causes deossification of bones in women and w ill lead to osteoporosis. D) W omen typically do not get enough calcium in their diet. E) Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause w hereas men continue to produce male sex hormones throughout adulthood. 96) 97) A ging has w hat effect on the skeletal system? A) progressive loss of processes and tuberosities B) loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix C) increase in the number of cranial foramina D) fusion of joints, especially syndesmoses E) increase in a dipose tissue in epiphyses 97) 98) If a tumor secretes high levels of osteoclast- activating factor, which of the follow ing would you expect to occur as a result of this condition? A) increased osteoclast activity B) decreased bone density C) increases in blood levels of calcium D) bone fragility E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 98) 14 99) M ary is 50 years old an d has entered menopause. D uring a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. H er physician suggests hormone therapy. W hat hormone might she prescribe for her patient? A) calcitonin B) parathyroid hormone C) thyroid hormone D) estrogen E) growth hormone 100) M ary is 50 years old an d has entered menopause. D uring a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. H er physician suggests nutritional therapy. W hat might she recommend for her patient? A) vitamin C B) dairy products C) vitamin D D) calcium supplements E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 100) 101) T he shaft of long bones is called the ________. 101) 102) T he narrow region between the head and shaft of a long bone is called the ________. 102) 10...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern