03_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter3 The Cellular Levelof Organizati 1 o n The A aprotein B thecell C atissue D anorgan E anorgan system Answer

03_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter3 The Cellular...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organizati Multiple Choice Questions 1) o n The smallest living unit within the human body is A) a protein. B) the cell. C) a tissue. D) an organ. E) an organ system. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) The watery component of the cytoplasm is called A) cytosol. B) protoplasm. C) extracellular D) fluid. interstitial fluid. E) a colloidal gel. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) Which of following terms is not used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding the medium? A) cell wall B) cell membrane C) plasma D) membrane plasmalemma E) both A and D Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Functions of the plasmalemma include all of the following, except A) separation of B) the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid. regulation of C) exchange of materials with the extracellular environment. sensitivity to D) chemical changes in the extracellular fluid. thermal E) insulation. structural support. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) The plasma membrane is composed of A) a bilayer of B) proteins. a bilayer of C) phospholipids. carbohydrate D) molecules. carbohydrates and proteins. E) carbohydrates and lipids. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Which of the following is not a function of membrane proteins? A) bind to ligands B) regulate the C) passage of ions act as carrier D) molecules for various solutes act as anchors or stabilizers for the cell membrane E) cell nutrient Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Functions of the glycocalyx include A) lubricating and protecting the cell membrane. B) identifying the cell for the immune system. C) binding D) extracellular compounds. all of the above E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Each of the following is an example of a nonmembranous organelle, except A) lysosomes. B) cilia. C) centrioles. D) ribosomes. E) cytoskeleton. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Compone nts of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except A) microfilaments. B) intermediate C) filaments. microsomes. D) microtubules. E) thick filaments. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Tubulin is to microtubules as actin is to A) ribosomes. B) microfilaments. C) intermediate D) filaments. flagella. E) microvilli. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) Which of the following cytoskeleton components moves the chromosomes during cell division? A) microfilaments B) intermediate C) filaments thick filaments D) microtubules E) basal bodies Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the A) cytoplasm. B) endoplasmic C) reticulum. nucleus. D) mitochondria. E) cilia. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) In the mitochondrion, folds are to cristae as the contained fluid is to A) actin. B) microvilli. C) cytosol. D) basal body. E) matrix. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) The components of ribosomes are formed within A) the endoplasmic reticulum. B) Golgi C) complexes. lysosomes. D) mitochondria. E) nucleoli. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the A) ribosomes. B) rough ER. C) smooth ER. D) Golgi E) apparatus. mitochondria. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes? A) rough B) endoplasmic reticulum smooth C) endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria D) nucleoli E) Golgi apparatus Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Renewal or modification of the cell membrane is a function of the A) microtubules. B) mitochondria. C) rough D) endoplasmic reticulum. ribosomes. E) Golgi apparatus. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) Organelle s that absorb and neutralize drugs and toxins are A) lysosomes. B) peroxisomes. C) endocytic D) vesicles. nuclei E) toxisomes. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) When activated, lysosomes function in A) formation of B) new cell membranes. synthesis of C) proteins. digestion of D) foreign material. synthesis of E) lipids. cell division. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) Most of a cell's DNA is located in its A) ribosomes. B) lysosomes. C) Golgi D) apparatus. nucleus. E) nucleolus. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) The control center for cellular operations is the A) nucleus. B) mitochondria. C) Golgi D) apparatus. endoplasmic E) reticulum. ribosome. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) The complex structures of DNA and protein found in the cell nucleus are A) nucleoplasm. B) chromosomes. C) histones. D) nucleases. E) mitochondria. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) mRNA is needed to synthesize ________ in the cytoplasm. A) carbohydrates B) lipids C) proteins D) phospholipids E) all of the above Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) The triplet codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the A) cytoplasm. B) gene. C) codon. D) anticodon. E) polypeptide itself. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) As each codon arrives at the active site of a ribosome, it attracts another molecule containing the anticodon. This molecule is called A) DNA. B) mRNA. C) rRNA. D) tRNA. E) RER. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called A) replication. B) transcription. C) translation. D) mitosis. E) auscultation. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) The process of forming mRNA is called A) replication. B) transcription. C) translation. D) ribolation. E) auscultation. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of A) osmosis. B) active transport. C) diffusion. D) facilitated E) transport. filtration. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane is influenced by all of the following, except A) hydrolysis of B) ATP. the presence of the membrane channels. C) the charge on the ion. D) concentration gradient. E) lipid solubility. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through A) channels B) formed by integral proteins. peripheral C) proteins. lipid channels. D) peripheral E) carbohydrates. defects in the lipid layer of the membrane. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called A) merotonic. B) hypertonic. C) isotonic. D) hypotonic. E) homotonic. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) "Spikes" form on a blood cell when it is placed in a(n) ________ solution. A) isotonic B) hypertonic C) hypotonic D) merotonic E) homotonic Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 33) The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membranebound carrier proteins is called A) osmosis. B) facilitated C) diffusion. active transport. D) endocytosis. E) exocytosis. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) Facilitate d diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that A) facilitated B) diffusion consumes no ATP. facilitated C) diffusion moves molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration. the rate of D) molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules. facilitated E) diffusion never eliminates the concentration gradient. the rate of molecular movement is not limited by the number of available carrier molecules. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) A process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called A) active transport. B) passive C) transport. facilitated D) transport. osmosis. E) diffusion. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called A) osmosis. B) active transport. C) facilitated D) transport. endocytosis. E) an ion exchange pump. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) The principal cations in our body fluids are ________ and ________. A) sodium; B) potassium calcium; C) magnesium sodium; D) calcium chloride; E) bicarbonate sodium; chloride Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects ________ ions from the cell and imports ________ ions. A) potassium; B) calcium sodium; C) calcium potassium; D) sodium sodium; E) potassium calcium; sodium Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) Which of the following about a cell's resting transmembrane potential is false? A) inside slightly more positive than outside B) inside slightly more negative than outside C) depends on separation of + and — charges D) represents E) potential energy controls muscular contraction and nervous signaling Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) The potential difference across the cell membrane is due to the separation of A) carbohydrate B) molecules. water C) molecules. cations and D) anions. acids and bases. E) phospholipids and proteins. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) Changes in the transmembrane potential of a cell are involved in A) movement. B) thought. C) glandular D) secretion. all of the above E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called A) prophase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) telophase. E) anaphase. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) A cell duplicates its chromosomes during the ________ phase. A) Go B) G1 C) G2 D) Gm E) S Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) During mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during A) prophase. B) metaphase. C) interphase. D) telophase. E) anaphase. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs. A) anaphase B) prophase C) interphase D) telophase E) metaphase Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) As genes functionally eliminated, the cell becomes limited in the range of proteins it can make. This specialization process is termed are A) adaptation. B) differentiation. C) structural D) integration. cellular E) activation. apoptosis. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) All of the following membrane transport mechanisms are passive processes, except A) diffusion. B) facilitated C) diffusion. vesicular D) transport. osmosis. E) all of the above Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) The plasmalemma includes A) integral B) proteins. glycolipids. C) phospholipids. D) all of the above E) A and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) The genetically programmed death of cells is called A) differentiation. B) replication. C) apoptosis. D) metastasis. E) mitosis. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) Osmotic pressure A) forces water to move toward the higher solute concentration. B) forces water to move across a semipermeable membrane. C) can be opposed by hydrostatic pressure. D) all of the above E) A and C only Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 51) Membran e proteins perform which of the following functions? A) anchoring B) receptors C) recognition D) enzymes E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 52) Which of the following about cytoplasm is false? A) extracellular B) fluid contains more protein the material that fills a cell C) semi-rigid texture D) includes E) cytoskeleton includes cytosol Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) Many proteins in the cytosol are ________ that accelerate metabolic reactions. A) carbohydrates B) enzymes C) lipids D) messengers E) ions Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) Extracellu lar fluid serves as A) a storage area. B) a reserve area. C) a component of the phospholipid bilayer. D) a transport E) medium. a transport medium with large storage capacity. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Microfila ments A) anchor the B) cytoskeleton to membrane proteins control the C) consistency of cytoplasm with myosin, D) produce cell movement all of the above E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) Tubulin is A) a carbohydrate that assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules). B) a lipid that C) assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules). a protein that D) assembles into filamentous tubes (microtubules). a protein that forms the tubular portion of the cytosol. E) a lipid that forms the ER. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) These molecular motors carry materials in opposite directions along microtubules. A) kinesin and B) myosin actin and C) myosin dynein and D) myosin dynein and E) actin dynein and kinesin Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 58) Endocyto sis is A) a method for B) transporting substances into the cell. a method for C) metabolizing within the cytosol. a form of D) anabolism. a viral infection. E) a method for packaging secretions. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 59) Peroxiso mes A) contain B) enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide. absorb and C) break down fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process. is another name for lysosomes. D) both A and B E) none of the above Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 60) Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that A) cells with large numbers of mitochondria are short-lived. B) cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand. C) cells with small numbers of mitochondria have a large ATP supply. D) cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a low energy demand. E) some cells are older than others. Answer: B Diff: 3 Skill: Level 3 Questions: Critical Thinking & Clinical Applications 61) A mature red blood cell lacks a nucleus. Thus, it A) can repair itself readily. B) is malformed. C) can only divide once more. D) will be a long- lived cell. E) cannot make new proteins and will be worn out within a few months. Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 3 Questions: Critical Thinking & Clinical Applications 62) Histones are found in A) nucleosomes. B) proteasomes. C) lysosomes. D) vesicles. E) endosomes. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) Chromoso mes consist of ________ and ________. A) RNA; B) carbohydrates DNA; lipids C) DNA; proteins D) water; RNA E) RNA; proteins Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) Which organelle is most prominent in cells that make large amounts of protein? A) nucleus B) nucleolus C) chromosome D) proteasome E) mitochondria Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 65) Messenge r RNA is vital to the cell because A) mRNA can B) leave the nucleus. mRNA cannot leave the nucleus. C) DNA can leave the nucleus. D) DNA cannot E) leave the nucleus. both A and D Answer: E Diff: 3 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 66) The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are A) chromosomes. B) genes. C) ribosomes. D) codons. E) RNA. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) Specific proteins are manufactured through the interaction of ________ and ________. A) multiple B) enzymes; three types of RNA multiple C) enzymes; two types of RNA multiple D) carbohydrates; three types of DNA multiple E) proteins; three types of DNA multiple enzymes; three types of DNA Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 68) Which of these transport processes always requires metabolic energy? A) diffusion B) carrier- mediated transport C) vesicular D) transport freely E) permeable impermeable Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 69) The skin swells and puckers during a long bath. This suggests that bath water is a(n) ________ fluid. A) isotonic B) hypotonic C) hypertonic D) diffusion E) toxic Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 70) Red blood cell shrinkage is to ________ as cell bursting is to ________. A) crenation; B) hemolysis lysis; crenation C) hypotonic; D) isotonic isotonic; E) hypotonic isotonic; hypertonic Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 71) Two types of vesicular transport include A) endocytosis and retrocytosis. B) endocytosis and exocytosis. C) exocytosis and retrocytosis. D) pinocytosis and active transport. E) passive diffusion and active diffusion. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 72) A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates A) pinocytosis. B) endocytosis. C) exocytosis. D) phagocytosis. E) receptor- mediated endocytosis. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 73) During mitosis, two daughter cells form, each of which has A) a different B) number of chromosomes than the original cell. twice as many chromosomes as the original cell. C) the same D) number of chromosomes as the original cell. a lesser number of chromosomes than the original cell. E) half as many chromosomes as the original cell. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 74) A unit in messenger RNA consisting of a set of three consecutive nucleotides is termed a(n) A) amino acid. B) tRNA. C) anticodon. D) codon. E) gene. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 75) An impermeable carbohydrate that is often administered to patients suffering blood loss is A) saline solution. B) salt solution. C) glucose. D) isotonic saline. E) dextran. Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 76) An alternate term for tumor is A) neoplasm. B) cytoplasm. C) benign D) malignancy. primary E) metastasis. nucleoplasm. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 77) What is the first part of the cell that is affected when the pH of extracellular fluid changes? A) nucleus B) nucleolus C) the cytosol D) plasmalemma E) cytoskeleton Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 78) Which form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages newly sy...
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