06_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter6 Osseous...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of following is a function of the skeletal system? A) body support B) calcium C) homeostasis protection of D) internal organs blood cell E) production all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape? A) patella B) frontal C) vertebra D) metatarsal E) ulna Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The carpal bones are examples of ________ bones. A) long B) short C) flat D) irregular E) sesamoid Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) A rib is an example of a ________ bone. A) long B) short C) flat D) sutural E) sesamoid Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the ________. A) diaphysis B) epiphysis C) osseophysis D) metaphysis E) medullary cavity Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Which of the following labels best matches osteocyte? A) stem cell B) dissolves matrix C) mature bone D) cell secretes organic matrix Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called A) osteocytes. B) osteoprogenitor cells. C) osteoblasts. D) osteoclasts. E) chondrocytes. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) ________ are squamous cells that develop into osteoblasts. A) Osteoclasts B) Osteocytes C) Osteomedullary cells D) Osteoprogenitor cells E) Squamous osteons Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Through the action of osteoclasts, A) new bone is B) formed. an organic C) framework is formed. bony matrix is dissolved. D) osteoid is E) calcified. fractured bones regenerate. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Which of the following chemicals is not present in bone? A) calcium B) phosphate. collagen fibers. C) calcium D) carbonate. chondroitin E) sulfate. hydroxyapatite. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called A) central canals. B) lacunae. C) canaliculi. D) medullary E) cavities. foramina. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) The central canal of an osteon contains A) bone marrow. B) osteocytes. C) concentric D) lamellae. blood vessels. E) lacunae. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called A) osteons. B) trabeculae. C) concentric D) lamellae. interstitial E) lamellae. lacunae. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone. A) spongy B) trabecular C) compact D) lamellar E) irregular Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The medullary cavity of bones contains A) compact bone. B) osteons. C) cartilage. D) marrow. E) periosteum. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) The shaft of a long bone is called the A) epiphysis. B) diaphysis. C) epiphyseal D) plate. metaphysis. E) lamella. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) The lining of the medullary cavity is called the A) endosteum. B) periosteum. C) epimysium. D) perimysium. E) perichondrium. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) What structure allows a bone to grow in length? A) lacunae B) epiphyseal plate C) periosteal bud D) metaphysis E) trabeculae Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 19) The following are major steps in the process of intramem branous ossification. 1. 2. 3. 4. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers. Mesenchymal cells aggregate. The correct order for these events is A) 4, 1, 2, 3. B) 2, 1, 3, 4. C) 4, 2, 1, 3. D) 2, 3, 1, 4. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 20) Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification? A) roof of the skull B) carpal bones C) femur D) clavicle E) both A and D Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) Endochon dral ossification begins with the formation of a(n) A) fibrous connective-tissue model. B) cartilage model. C) membranous D) model. calcified model. E) osteoblasts model. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) The following are important steps in the process of endochon dral ossification. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enlarged chondrocytes die. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone. Chondrocytes enlarge and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium. Perichondrial cells become osteoblasts and produce a thin shell of bone. The correct order for these events is A) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2. B) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2. C) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2. D) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4. E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) Secondar y ossification centers occur A) in the diaphysis. B) at the C) periosteum. in the D) epiphyses. in the E) metaphyses. in dermal bones. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates A) get wider. B) become C) narrower. increase slowly. D) accelerate E) rapidly, but mostly in thickness. are hardly affected. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 25) The most abundant mineral in the human body is A) sodium. B) potassium. C) phosphorus. D) calcium. E) hydrogen. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone A) calcitonin. B) thyroid C) hormone. parathyroid D) hormone. growth E) hormone. testosterone. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Osteoclast -activating factor does all of the following, except that it A) is released in B) large amounts early in life. increases the C) number of osteoclasts. increases the D) activity of osteoclasts. produces a E) severe osteoporosis. is released by some cancer tumors. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) The hormone calcitonin functions to A) stimulate B) osteoclast activity. decrease the C) rate of calcium excretion. decrease the D) rate of calcium absorption. decrease the E) level of calcium ion in the blood. stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Parathyroi d hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that it A) stimulates B) osteoclast activity. increases the C) rate of calcium absorption. decreases the rate of calcium excretion. D) raises the level of calcium ion in the blood. E) inhibits calcitonin secretion. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in A) osteoporosis. B) osteopenia. C) rickets. D) giantism. E) dwarfism. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except A) vitamin A. B) vitamin E. C) vitamin C. D) the hormone E) thyroxine. vitamin D. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) Vitamin D is necessary for A) collagen B) formation. absorption C) calcium and phosphate ions. reducing D) osteoblast activity. increasing E) osteoclast activity. the organic matrix of bone. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) A lack of exercise could A) cause bones to become thicker. B) cause bones to store more calcium. C) result in porous and weak bones. D) cause bones to become longer. E) cause bones to lose their medullary cavity. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) When stress is applied to a bone, A) the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts. B) osteoclast C) activity increases. the bone D) becomes thin and brittle. the bone E) compensates by becoming thinner in the region of stress. it usually breaks. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) A condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is called A) osteopenia. B) osteoporosis. C) osteomyelitis. D) osteitis. E) osteomalacia. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the A) epiphyseal plate B) external callus C) dense tuberosity D) condyle E) fracture facet Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) ________ fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin. A) Open B) Closed C) Compound D) Recurrent E) both B and D Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture. A) compression B) Pott C) displaced D) greenstick E) Colles Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) Bones that develop within tendons are called ________ bones. A) irregular B) sesamoid C) sutural D) Wormian E) tendon Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) Small, oddly shaped bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones. A) irregular B) sesamoid C) sutural D) sagittal E) tendon Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) The large proximal projection on the femur is termed the A) ramus. B) trochanter. C) tuberosity. D) tubercle. E) condyle. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) A hole through a bone is termed a A) ramus. B) foramen. C) linea. D) tubercle. E) facet. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a A) crest. B) ridge. C) head. D) condyle. E) trochlea. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) A deep hollow on a bone is termed a A) fossa. B) sulcus. C) facet. D) fissure. E) line. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a A) Volkmann's B) canal. lacuna. C) trabecula. D) Haversian E) canal. Venetian canal. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) The structural units of mature compact bone are called A) lacunae. B) osteocytes. C) osteons. D) canaliculi. E) lamellae. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as A) hardening. B) ossification. C) calcification. D) osteogenesis. E) remodeling. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) A child with rickets often has A) oversized facial bones. B) long fingers. C) frequent D) bruises. bowed legs. E) inadequate muscle development. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) ________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet. A) Irregular B) Sesamoid C) Short D) Long E) Flat Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone. A) long B) short C) flat D) irregular E) sesamoid Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) The articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of what type of cartilage? A) elastic cartilage B) synovial C) cartilage hyaline D) cartilage fibrocartilage E) osseous cartilage Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) Fat is stored within the A) medullary B) cavity. metaphysis. C) spongy bone. D) epiphysis. E) diaphysis. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) Which of the following is a characteristic of bone? A) The matrix of the bone is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts. B) The matrix of the bone contains osteoclasts. C) Narrow D) channels pass through the matrix to allow for an exchange of nutrients. all of the above E) both A and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) ________ accounts for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone. A) Water B) Calcium C) carbonate Collagen fibers D) Fluoride E) Calcium phosphate Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering. A) collagen-fiber B) protein-crystal C) mineral-crystal D) protein-protein E) hydroxyapatite- crystal Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 56) The most abundant cell type in bone is A) osteoclasts. B) osteoblasts. C) osteolytes. D) osteoprogenitor cells. E) osteocytes. Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 57) ________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum. A) Osteocyte B) Osteoclast C) Osteoid D) Osteoprogenitor E) Osteoblast Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are A) radial. B) anterior. C) parallel. D) proximal. E) diagonal. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) The femur can withstand ________ times the body weight without breaking. A) 3 B) 5 to 10 C) 8 D) 10 to 15 E) 30 Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone. A) Blue B) Yellow C) White D) Gray E) Red Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles. A) Short B) Irregular C) Spongy D) Compact E) Long Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) Intramem branous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells. A) osteoclast B) osteoprogenitor C) mesenchymal D) osteoblast E) osteocyte Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) Which of the following statements about Marfan's syndrome is false? A) results in short, stubby fingers B) results from a mutation C) affects D) connective tissue genes affects E) epiphyseal cartilages none of the above Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) Where in the body does the production of calcitriol start? A) bone B) kidneys C) small intestine D) liver E) skin Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 65) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of A) potassium. B) iron. C) sulfate. D) calcium. E) sodium. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 66) Bone is composed of ________ percent cells. A) 25 B) 10 C) 2 D) 15 E) 50 Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) While on skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott fracture. What would you expect as a prominent a school part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall? A) hypertension B) tachycardia C) erythema D) hematoma E) cyanosis Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 68) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain A) blood cells. B) osteocytes. C) chondroblasts. D) bone marrow. E) capillaries. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 69) How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone? A) The bone would be less flexible. B) The bone would be stronger. C) The bone would be more brittle. D) The bone would be more flexible. E) The bone would be less compressible. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 70) In compact bone, the osteons A) are lined up in the same direction. B) are lined up C) perpendicular to the long axis. are arranged in an irregular pattern. D) are separated by medullary spaces. E) are lacking in the diaphysis. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 71) The trabeculae of spongy bone A) are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone. B) are organized along stress lines. C) are composed mostly of cartilage. D) will collapse E) under stress. are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 72) If osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will become A) denser. B) thicker. C) osteopenic. D) stronger. E) calcified. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 73) During appositional growth A) bones grow B) longer. bones grow C) wider. bone is replaced by cartilage. D) the epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis. E) osteoblasts are overwhelmed by osteocytes. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 74) When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone, A) puberty begins. B) interstitial bone growth begins. C) appositional D) bone growth begins. long bones have reached their adult length. E) the bone becomes more brittle. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 75) When is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones cartilage A) grow longer. B) grow wider. C) become shorter. D) become more porous and weaker. E) become thicker. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 76) Accelerat ed closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by A) high levels of vitamin D. B) too much C) calcium in the diet. elevated levels of estrogen. D) too little E) thyroxine. an excess of growth hormone. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 77) In normal adult bones, A) there is no B) turnover of minerals. a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year. C) osteoblast D) activity exceeds osteoclast activity, once bone has been formed. osteoclasts E) continue to be active long after osteoblast activity ceases. exercise will have no effect on bone remodeling. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 78) Which is greater? A) osteoclast B) activity when calcitonin is present osteoclast activity when calcitonin is absent Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 79) Which is greater? A) blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased B) blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is decreased Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 80) The condition known as osteopenia A) affects mostly women. B) causes a gradual reduction in bone mass. C) is caused by too much vitamin D in the diet. D) is rarely seen as people age. E) only affects the femur. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 81) Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system? A) tendons B) bones C) ligaments D) cartilage E) other tissues that connect bones Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 82) If a tumor high levels of osteoclast-activating factor, which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition? secretes A) increases in B) blood levels of calcium bone fragility C) decreased bone density D) all of the above E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 3 Skill: L...
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