12_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter12 Neural Tissue 1 Whichof A sensethe B integrate C sensoryinformation coordinate D voluntaryan

12_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter12 Neural...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 12 Neural Tissue Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system? A) sense the B) internal and external environments integrate C) sensory information coordinate D) voluntary and involuntary activities direct long-term functions, such as growth E) control peripheral effectors Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) The ________ nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. A) autonomic B) peripheral C) central D) efferent E) afferent Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles. A) sympathetic B) parasympathetic C) afferent D) somatic E) autonomic Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated A) motor. B) afferent. C) efferent. D) autonomic. E) somatic. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) Which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia? A) support B) memory C) secretion of D) cerebrospinal fluid maintenance of blood-brain barrier E) phagocytosis Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Which of the following are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system? A) astrocytes B) satellite cells C) oligodendrocyte s D) microglia E) ependymal cells Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the A) astrocytes. B) satellite cells. C) oligodendrocyte s. D) microglia. E) ependymal cells. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Functions of astrocytes include all of the following, except A) maintaining the blood-brain barrier. B) conducting C) action potentials. guiding neuron development. D) responding to neural tissue damage. E) forming a three- dimensional framework for the CNS. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by A) astrocytes. B) satellite cells. C) oligodendrocyte s. D) microglia. E) ependymal cells. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) ________ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal. A) Astrocytes B) Satellite cells C) Oligodendrocyt es D) Microglia E) Ependymal cells Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called A) astrocytes. B) satellite cells. C) oligodendrocyte s. D) microglia. E) ependymal cells. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by A) astrocytes. B) satellite cells. C) oligodendrocyte s. D) microglia. E) Schwann cells. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) Glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are A) astrocytes. B) satellite cells. C) oligodendrocyte s. D) microglia. E) ependymal cells. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) Which of the following is not a recognized structural classification for neurons? A) anaxonic B) bipolar C) multipolar D) pseudopolar E) unipolar Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is A) anaxonic. B) bipolar. C) multipolar. D) pseudopolar. E) unipolar. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) The cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus of a neuron is called the A) protoplasm. B) nucleoplasm. C) sarcoplasm. D) neuroplasm. E) perikaryon. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called A) neurofilaments. B) neurofibrils. C) perikaryon. D) Nissl bodies. E) microglia. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) The axon is connected to the soma at the A) telodendria. B) synaptic knobs. C) collaterals. D) axon hillock. E) synapse. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) Branches that may occur along an axon are called A) telodendria. B) synaptic knobs. C) collaterals. D) hillocks. E) synapses. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) Axons terminate in a series of fine extensions known as A) telodendria. B) knobs. C) collaterals. D) dendrites. E) synapses. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) Neurotran smitter for release is stored in synaptic A) telodendria. B) knobs. C) vesicles. D) mitochondria. E) neurosomes. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the A) telodendria. B) synaptic knob. C) collateral. D) hillock. E) synapse. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) The rabies virus travels to the CNS via A) anterograde B) axoplasmic transport. retrograde C) axoplasmic transport. blood vessels. D) subcutaneous connective tissue. E) cerebrospinal fluid. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) Neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called A) anaxonic. B) unipolar. C) bipolar. D) tripolar. E) multipolar. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called A) anaxonic. B) unipolar. C) bipolar. D) tripolar. E) multipolar. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) Neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between, are called A) anaxonic. B) unipolar. C) bipolar. D) tripolar. E) multipolar. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called A) anaxonic. B) unipolar. C) bipolar. D) tripolar. E) multipolar. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) Sensory neurons of the PNS are A) unipolar. B) bipolar. C) anaxonic. D) multipolar. E) tripolar. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Which of the following activities or sensations is not monitored by interoceptors? A) sight B) taste C) activities of the digestive system D) cardiovascular activities E) urinary activities Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) Which of the following is not involved in creating the resting potential of a neuron? A) diffusion of B) potassium ions out of the cell diffusion of C) sodium ions into the cell membrane D) permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions membrane E) permeability for potassium ions greater than sodium ions The interior of the plasma membrane has an excess of negative charges. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 31) Which of following interactions between electrical and chemical gradients does not lead to the establishment of a neuron's resting the potential? A) Chemical and electrical forces both favor sodium ions entering the cell. B) Electrical forces push sodium ions out of the cell. C) Chemical forces tend to drive potassium ions out of the cell. D) Potassium ions are attracted to the negative charges inside the cell. E) Potassium ions are repulsed by positive charges outside the cell. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its Na-K ion exchange pump transports A) 1 intracellular sodium ion for 2 extracellular potassium ions. B) 2 intracellular sodium ions for 1 extracellular potassium ion. C) 3 intracellular sodium ions for 1 extracellular potassium ion. D) 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions. E) 3 extracellular sodium ions for 2 intracellular potassium ions. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) Ion channels that are always open are called ________ channels. A) active B) gated C) leak D) regulated E) local Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes A) depolarization. B) repolarization. C) hyperpolarizatio n. D) increased E) positive charge inside the membrane. both A and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) Voltage- gated channels are present A) at the motor end plate. B) on the surface of dendrites. C) in the D) membrane that covers axons. on the soma of neurons. E) along the perikaryon of neurons. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) The following are the main steps in the generatio n of an action potential. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sodium channels are inactivated. Voltage-gated potassium channels open and potassium moves out of the cell, initiating repolarization. Sodium channels regain their normal properties. A graded depolarization brings an area of an excitable membrane to threshold. A temporary hyperpolarization occurs. Sodium channel activation occurs. Sodium ions enter the cell and depolarization occurs. The proper sequence of these events is A) 4, 6, 7, 3, 2, 5, 1. B) 4, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 5. C) 6, 7, 4, 1, 2, 3, 5. D) 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 3, 5. E) 4, 2, 5, 6, 7, 3, 1. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) The sodium-potassium ion exchange pump A) must reestablish ion concentrations after each action potential. B) transports C) sodium ions into the cell during depolarization. transports D) potassium ions out of the cell during repolarization. moves sodium and potassium opposite to the direction of their electrochemical gradients. E) depends on a hydrogen gradient for energy. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) The all- or-none principle states that A) all stimuli will produce identical action potentials. B) all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials. C) the greater the magnitude of the stimuli, the greater the magnitude of the action potential. D) only sensory E) stimuli can activate action potentials. only motor stimuli can activate action potentials. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) In the process of continuous action potential propagation, A) the action B) potential is triggered by graded depolarization of the initial segment. at threshold, C) sodium channels begin to open rapidly. local currents depolarize the region just adjacent to the active zone. D) local currents depolarize a sensitive spot distant from the active zone. E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 40) In the process of saltatory action potential propagation, A) the action B) potential is triggered by graded depolarization of the initial segment. at threshold, C) sodium channels begin to open rapidly. local currents depolarize the region just adjacent to the active zone. D) local currents depolarize a sensitive spot distant from the active zone. E) A, B, and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 41) Which of the following does not influence the time necessary for a nerve impulse to be transmitted? A) length of the B) axon presence or C) absence of a myelin sheath diameter of the axon D) presence or E) absence of nodes whether or not the impulse begins in the CNS Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) Which of the following types of nerve fiber possesses the fastest speed of impulse propagation? A) type A B) type B C) type C D) type D E) type E Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) Which of the following comparisons between neurons and muscle tissue is false? A) Resting B) potentials are greater in muscle fibers. Muscle fibers conduct action potentials at slow speeds. C) Action D) potentials last longer in muscle fibers. Muscle fibers conduct action potentials only by continuous propagation. E) Action potentials are briefer in muscle fibers. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system? A) chemical B) electrical C) mechanical D) processing E) radiative Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is A) sodium. B) potassium. C) calcium. D) chloride. E) magnesium. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) Cholinerg ic synapses release the neurotransmitter A) norepinephrine. B) adrenalin. C) serotonin. D) acetylcholine. E) GABA. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) The following are the steps involved in transmissi on at a cholinergi c synapse. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Chemically gated sodium channels on the postsynaptic membrane are activated. Calcium ions enter the synaptic knob. Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes acetylcholine. An action potential depolarizes the synaptic knob at the presynaptic membrane. The synaptic knob reabsorbs choline. Acetylcholine is released from storage vesicles by exocytosis. Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. Calcium ions are removed from the cytoplasm of the synaptic knob. The correct sequence for these events is A) 4, 2, 6, 7, 8, 5, 3, 1. B) 4, 2, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5. C) 2, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5. D) 2, 5, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3. E) 6, 4, 2, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) Adrenergi c synapses release the neurotransmitter A) acetylcholine. B) norepinephrine. C) dopamine. D) serotonin. E) GABA. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked, A) synaptic B) transmission would fail. release of C) neurotransmitter would stop. smaller action potentials would result. D) both A and B E) A, B, and C Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on A) the frequency of neurotransmitter release. B) the nature of the neurotransmitter. C) the D) characteristics of the receptors. the quantity of neurotransmitters released. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) Which of the following is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain? A) glutamate B) gamma C) aminobutyric acid serotonin D) noradrenaline E) glycine Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) Which of the following is not a possibledrug effect on synaptic function? A) interfere with neurotransmitter synthesis B) interfere with neurotransmitter reuptake C) prevent D) neurotransmitter inactivation block E) neurotransmitter binding to receptors change the type of receptor found in the postsynaptic membrane Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) The site in the neuron where EPSPs and IPSPs are integrated is the A) chemical B) synapse. electrical C) synapse. axon hillock. D) dendritic E) membrane. synaptic knob. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when A) more potassium ions than usual leak out of a cell. B) more calcium ions than usual leak out of a cell. C) chloride ions D) enter a cell. extra sodium ions enter a cell. E) hyperpolarizatio ns occur. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials) A) are local B) depolarizations. are local C) hyperpolarizations. increase D) membrane permeability to sodium ions. block the efflux of potassium ions. E) block the efflux of calcium ions. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs? A) spatial B) summation temporal C) summation inhibition of the impulse D) hyperpolarizatio n E) decrease in speed of impulse transmission Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) Summatio n that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated A) spatial B) summation. temporal C) summation. inhibition of the impulse. D) hyperpolarizatio n. E) impulse transmission. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 58) After acetylcholinesterase acts, the synaptic knob A) reabsorbs the B) acetylcholine. reabsorbs the C) acetate. reabsorbs the choline. D) all of the above E) both B and C Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 59) Active neurons need ATP to support which of the following? A) the movement of materials to the soma by axoplasmic transport B) the synthesis of neurotransmitter molecules C) the movement of materials from the soma by axoplasmic transport D) the recovery E) from action potentials all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates: A) skeletal muscle cells B) smooth muscle cells C) heart muscle D) cells glandular cells E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) Integral membrane proteins that connect electrical synapses are called A) connexons. B) receptors. C) desmosomes. D) sodium E) channels. synapsins. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) The same ________ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ________. A) neurotransmitte r; receptor B) receptor; C) neurotransmitter substrate; D) receptor hormone; E) neurotransmitter propagation; neurotransmitter Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 63) Deteriorat changes in the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma is called ________ degeneration. ing A) neural B) central C) peripheral D) Wallerian E) conduction Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) Which of the following is a function of neuroglia? A) regulate the B) composition of interstitial fluid provide a C) supportive framework produce D) cerebrospinal fluid act as E) phagocytes all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) The cytoskeleton of the perikaryon contains which of the following? A) neurofilaments B) neurofibrils C) neurotubules D) B and C only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 66) The axoplasm of the axon contains which of the following? A) neurotubules B) mitochondria C) vesicles D) neurofibrils E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) ________ neurons are small and have no anatomical features that distinguish dendrites from axons. A) Multipolar B) Anaxonic C) Unipolar D) Bipolar E) none of the above Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 68) ________ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon, and occur in special sense organs. A) Multipolar B) Anaxonic C) Unipolar D) Bipolar E) none of the above Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 69) In a(n) ________ neuron, the dendrites and axon are continuous or fused. A) multipolar B) anaxonic C) unipolar D) bipolar E) none of the above Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Lev...
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