15_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter15 Neural...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 15 Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous Multiple Choice Questions 1) S y s t e m The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except A) temperature. B) taste. C) touch. D) vibration. E) pain. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Which of the following is not one of the special senses? A) hearing B) smell C) taste D) vibration E) vision Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The general senses A) involve B) receptors that are relatively simple in structure. are located in specialized structures called sense organs. C) are localized to specific areas of the body. D) cannot generate action potentials. E) both A and B Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity? A) the structure of the receptor cell B) characteristics of the receptor cell membrane C) accessory cells that function with the receptor D) accessory E) structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli any of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) Sensory transduction can involve which of the following? A) a stimulus B) altering the permeability of a receptor membrane change in the C) flow of ions across the sensory membrane the production of a receptor potential D) inhibition of E) neurotransmitter release any of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Central adaptation refers to A) the decline in activity of peripheral receptors when stimulated. B) a characteristic of phasic receptors. C) inhibition of D) nuclei located along a sensory pathway. increases in E) conscious perception of a sensory stimulus. a change in motor receptivity of a neuron. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Our perception of our environment is imperfect for all of the following reasons, except that A) humans lack B) receptors for every possible stimulus. receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner. C) not all D) sensations lead to a perception. abnormal E) receptor function can produce sensations that have no basis in fact. our receptors have limited sensitivity. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Which of the following is sometimes called "prickling pain"? A) mechanical B) damage chemicals C) extremes of D) temperature fast pain E) both B and D Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Endorphi ns can reduce perception of sensations initiated by A) nociceptors. B) mechanorecepto rs. C) thermoreceptors . D) chemoreceptors. E) proprioceptors. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Thermore ceptors A) are found B) within the dermis. are free nerve endings. C) for "cold" are structurally indistinguishable from those for "warm." D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) A receptor that contains many mechanically gated ion channels would function best as a A) tactile receptor. B) chemoreceptor. C) nociceptor. D) thermoreceptor. E) light receptor. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) A fast- adapting mechanoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a A) tactile (Merkel) disc. B) root hair plexus. C) free nerve D) ending. Ruffini E) corpuscle. tactile (Meissner) corpuscle. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called A) nociceptors. B) chemoreceptors. C) baroreceptors. D) proprioceptors. E) thermoreceptors . Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) Mechanor eceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called A) nociceptors. B) baroreceptors. C) chemoreceptors. D) proprioceptors. E) thermoreceptors . Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called A) Ruffini B) corpuscles. lamellated C) corpuscles. tactile D) (Meissner) corpuscles. tactile discs. E) root hair plexuses. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a A) lamellated B) corpuscle. Ruffini C) corpuscle. tactile D) (Meissner) corpuscle. tactile (Merkel) disc. E) root hair plexus. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a A) Ruffini B) corpuscle. lamellated C) corpuscle. tactile D) (Meissner) corpuscle. tactile (Merkel) disc. E) root hair plexus. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) A highly tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of sensitive the stratum germinativum is a A) lamellated B) corpuscle. tactile C) (Meissner) corpuscle. Ruffini D) corpuscle. tactile (Merkel) disc. E) root hair plexus. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) A fast- adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a A) tactile (Merkel) disc. B) lamellated C) corpuscle. tactile D) (Meissner) corpuscle. Ruffini E) corpuscle. root hair plexus. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide? A) location of the stimulus. B) shape of the C) stimulus. texture of the stimulus. D) movement of the stimulus. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 21) Which of the following is not a property of thermoreceptors? A) sensation B) conducted in same pathway as pain tonic response to temperature change C) found in D) skeletal muscle, hypothalamus, and skin project to E) reticular formation cold receptors outnumber warm receptors Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 22) Chemorec eptors are located in all of the following, except A) carotid bodies. B) aortic bodies. C) in the skin. D) the organs of taste. E) the organs of smell. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration? A) corticobulbar B) corticospinal C) posterior D) (dorsal) column spinothalamic E) both C and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) The spinal tract that carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the A) fasciculus B) gracilis. fasciculus C) cuneatus. spinocerebellar. D) lateral E) spinothalamic. anterior spinothalamic. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the A) fasciculus B) gracilis. fasciculus C) cuneatus. posterior D) spinocerebellar. lateral E) spinothalamic. anterior spinothalamic. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the A) fasciculus B) gracilis. fasciculus C) cuneatus. posterior D) spinocerebellar. lateral E) spinothalamic. anterior spinothalamic. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord, except the A) fasciculus B) gracilis. fasciculus C) cuneatus. posterior D) spinocerebellar. reticulospinal tract. E) anterior spinothalamic. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ________ neuron. A) receptor B) first-order C) second-order D) third-order E) fourth-order Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Examples of sensory modalities include A) touch. B) warmth. C) smell. D) vibration. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are ________ neurons. A) receptor B) first-order C) second-order D) third-order E) fourth-order Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) Only about ________ percent of the information provided by afferent fibers reaches the cerebral cortex and our awareness. A) 1 B) 10 C) 25 D) 50 E) 95 Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) Neurons from the nucleus gracilis A) relay B) information directly to the cerebrum. decussate C) before entering the medial lemniscus. relay sensory information to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. D) carry both crude and fine touch. E) both A and D Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because A) sensory neurons carry only one modality. B) sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions. C) incoming D) sensory information is first processed by the thalamus. different types of sensory receptors produce action potentials of different sizes and shapes. E) of the many types of tactile receptors. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the cord is the ________ tract. A) lateral B) corticospinal anterior C) corticospinal rubrospinal D) reticulospinal E) vestibulospinal Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the medulla oblongata is the ________ tract. A) lateral B) corticospinal anterior C) corticospinal rubrospinal D) reticulospinal E) vestibulospinal Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) The spinal tract that normally plays a minor role in the control of the distal muscles of the arms is the ________ tract. A) lateral B) corticospinal anterior C) corticospinal rubrospinal D) reticulospinal E) vestibulospinal Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) The spinal tract that unconsciously maintains balance and muscle tone is the ________ tract. A) lateral B) corticospinal anterior C) corticospinal rubrospinal D) reticulospinal E) vestibulospinal Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) The medial pathway that controls involuntary movements of head, neck, and arm position in response to sudden visual and auditory stimuli is the ________ tract. A) lateral B) corticospinal tectospinal C) rubrospinal D) reticulospinal E) vestibulospinal Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) The pyramidal system provides A) voluntary B) control over skeletal muscles. voluntary C) control over smooth muscles. involuntary D) control over skeletal muscles. involuntary E) control over smooth muscles. involuntary control over cardiac muscle. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) The corticospinal system is often referred to as the A) red nucleus. B) reticular C) formation. spinothalamic tracts. D) pyramidal E) system. medullary centers. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the A) size of the body area. B) distance of the body area from the brain. C) number of D) motor units in that region. number of E) sensory receptors in the area of the body. size of the nerves that serve the area of the body. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) Axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the A) sensory B) neurons. somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord. C) autonomic D) motor neurons in the spinal cord. motor nuclei of cranial nerves. E) nuclei in the thalamus. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) Based on the motor homunculus, which of the following body regions has the largest motor units? A) tongue B) face C) hands D) back E) larynx Answer: D Diff: 3 Skill: Level 3 Questions: Critical Thinking & Clinical Applications 44) The pyramids on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata are formed by fibers of the ________ tracts. A) corticospinal B) corticobulbar C) reticulospinal D) vestibulospinal E) tectospinal Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) Axons that decussate between the pyramids of the medulla oblongata belong to the ________ tracts. A) anterior B) corticospinal lateral C) corticospinal vestibulospinal D) reticulospinal E) rubrospinal Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) The upper motor neurons of the medial pathway are located within any of the following, except the A) vestibular B) nuclei. reticular C) formation. superior D) colliculi. inferior E) colliculi. mamillary bodies. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) Tracts of the lateral and medial pathways include all of the following, except ________ tracts. A) corticospinal B) tectospinal C) rubrospinal D) reticulospinal E) vestibulospinal Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is most likely affected? A) corticospinal B) tract tectospinal tract C) rubrospinal tract D) corticobulbar tract E) reticulospinal tract Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 49) The basal nuclei A) initiate B) conscious motor activity. activate spinal reflexes. C) provide the D) background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities. exert direct E) control over lower motor neurons. act as gatekeepers, filtering out unnecessary sensorimotor activity. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle A) only require B) neural processing at the level of the cerebrum. with practice, involve little input from the brain. C) require the D) coordinated activity of several regions of the brain. are largely E) controlled at the level of the spinal cord. usually escape notice by the cerebellum. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect A) perception of B) pain. sight. C) voluntary motor activity. D) hearing. E) both A and D Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 52) The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following, except A) touch B) sensations. visual C) information. equilibrium- related sensations. D) input from the motor cortex. E) input from proprioceptors. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called ________ neurons. A) upper motor B) lower motor C) preganglionic D) postganglionic E) somesthetic Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration? A) corticobulbar B) corticospinal C) posterior D) (dorsal) column spinothalamic E) both C and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Some neurons within the basal nuclei are known to A) stimulate B) neurons with GABA. inhibit neurons with GABA. C) stimulate D) neurons with acetylcholine. both A and C E) both B and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) Visceral sensory information enters the CNS on afferent fibers within A) cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. B) dorsal roots T1 to L2. C) dorsal roots S2 to S4. D) both B and C E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) Mechanor eceptors might detect which of the following sensations? A) pressure B) touch C) vibration D) muscle length E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 58) If a friend about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention ________, is talking because it is not a special sense. A) smell B) sight C) balance D) cold E) hearing Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 59) In order for a sensation to become a perception, A) it must received by the somatosensory cortex. B) the individual must vocalize about it. C) it must arrive over fast-conducting nerve fibers. D) the other senses must be silent. E) it must received by the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 60) Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to A) receptor B) specificity. accessory cells. C) the fact that D) they are interoceptors. receptor E) potentials. both B and C Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 61) A receptor potential may A) increase B) neurotransmitter release. decrease C) neurotransmitter release. be a D) hyperpolarization. be a E) depolarization. be any of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the ________ of the stimulus. A) modality B) intensity C) location D) speed E) both A and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 63) Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________. A) nociceptors; B) thermoreceptors baroreceptors; chemoreceptors C) baroreceptors; nociceptors D) chemoreceptors ; nociceptors E) baroreceptors; thermoreceptors Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 64) Peripheral adaptation ________ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS. A) decreases B) increases C) stabilizes D) neutralizes E) both A and C Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 65) Tickle is to ________ as itch is to ________. A) pressure; heat B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors C) touch; pain D) stretch; E) temperature thermoreceptors ; nociceptors Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 66) Tactile discs are to ________ as tactile corpuscles are to ________. A) Wilms; B) Meissner Merkel; C) Meissner Meissner; D) Merkel Pacinian; E) Merkel pain; pressure Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 67) ________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure. A) Chemoreceptors B) Nociceptors C) Baroreptors D) Proprioceptors E) none of the above Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 68) Your just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are uncle was familiar with the phenomenon of A) referred pain. B) phantom pain. C) psychogenic D) pain. somatic pain. E) neurogenic pain. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 69) Descendi ng (motor) pathways always involve at least ________ motor neuron(s). A) one B) two C) three D) four E) spinal Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 70) Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the A) corticospinal B) pathway. medial C) pathway. lateral pathway. D) any of the E) above A and C only Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questio...
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