16_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter16 Neural...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 16 Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher­ Order Functions Multiple Choice Questions 1) The statement "there is always a peripheral synapse between the CNS and the effector organ" is A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) not true for E) either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems. true only for the somatic nervous system. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Pregangli onic neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in A) the brain. B) the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord. C) the posterior D) gray horns of the spinal cord. both A and B E) both A and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) Postgangl ionic axons usually are A) myelinated. B) unmyelinated. C) larger than D) preganglionic fibers. located in the brain. E) located in the spinal cord. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest." A) sympathetic B) parasympathetic C) thoracolumbar D) visceral E) somatomotor Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) Pregangli onic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the A) lateral gray B) horns of the cervical cord. anterior gray C) horns of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. lateral gray D) horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord. anterior gray E) horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord. lateral gray horns of T1 to S2 of the spinal cord. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ________ ganglia. A) intramural B) collateral C) chain D) prevertebral E) suprarenal Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia. A) intramural B) collateral C) chain D) paravertebral E) suprarenal Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Specialize d ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the A) intramural B) ganglia. collateral C) ganglia. chain ganglia. D) brain stem. E) suprarenal glands. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Postgangl ionic fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within A) intramural B) ganglia. collateral C) ganglia. sympathetic D) chain ganglia. suprarenal E) ganglia. white rami. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) The statement "it initiates contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle" is A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) not true for E) either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems. true only for the somatic nervous system. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except A) increased sweat secretion. B) reduced C) circulation to the skin. decreased heart rate. D) dilation of the pupils. E) increased blood flow to skeletal muscles. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) Splanchni c nerves A) originate from first-order neurons located in the upper five thoracic segments of the spinal cord. B) consist of axons that synapse in collateral ganglia. C) control D) sympathetic function of structures in the thorax. connect chain ganglia. E) are formed of parasympathetic fibers. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) The celiac ganglion innervates the A) stomach. B) liver. C) pancreas. D) all of the above E) A and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) Sympathe tic innervation of the urinary bladder is by way of the A) celiac ganglion. B) superior C) mesenteric ganglion. inferior D) mesenteric ganglion. pudendal E) ganglion. pelvic ganglion. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The sympathetic collateral ganglia include the A) celiac. B) superior C) mesenteric. inferior D) mesenteric. B and C only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) Pregangli onic fibers of parasympathetic neurons are present in all of the following cranial nerves, except N A) III. B) VII. C) IX. D) X. E) XII. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the A) splanchnic B) nerves. facial nerves. C) vagus nerves. D) glossopharynge al nerves. E) trigeminal nerve. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) Which of the following is not a parasympathetic ganglion? A) ciliary ganglion. B) pterygopalatine ganglion. C) submandibular ganglion. D) otic ganglion. E) celiac ganglion. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) Intramura l ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs are innervated by the ________ nerves. A) spinal B) splanchnic C) chain D) pelvic E) collateral Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) Ganglioni c neurons in the suprarenal gland A) are located in the suprarenal cortex. B) release C) acetylcholine into blood capillaries. release D) epinephrine into blood capillaries. have no known function. E) are modified and can't release neurotransmitters. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) The statement "it controls the diameter of the pupil" is A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) not true for E) either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems. true only for the somatic nervous system. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) Postgangl ionic sympathetic axons release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions. A) acetylcholine B) nitric oxide C) norepinephrine D) either A or C E) A, B, or C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 23) Stimulatio n of α adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in 1 A) an increase in the amount of intracellular cAMP. B) a decrease in C) the amount of intracellular cAMP. decreased D) membrane permeability to sodium ion. release of E) calcium ions from intracellular stores. increased membrane permeability to potassium ions. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) The statement "its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) not true for E) either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems. true only for the somatic nervous system. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) The statement "its ganglia are usually near or within the end organ" is A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) not true for E) either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems. true only for the somatic nervous system. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) Stimulatio n of the beta receptors on heart muscle cells results in A) the formation of cAMP. B) increased heart rate. C) increased force of contraction. D) A, B, and C E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Sweat glands contain ________ receptors. A) nicotinic B) cholinergic muscarinic C) cholinergic alpha D) beta E) both C and D Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) Nicotinic receptors A) respond to B) epinephrine. respond to C) norepinephrine. open chemically gated sodium ion channels. D) are found at E) neuroeffector junctions of the parasympathetic nervous system. open chemically gated calcium ion channels. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Muscarini c receptors A) are normally B) activated by acetylcholine. are found C) mostly in autonomic ganglia. always produce an excitatory response. D) control sodium channels in the affected membrane. E) are blocked by norepinephrine. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) Parasymp athetic stimulation A) increases heart rate. B) increases gastric motility. C) causes sweat D) glands to secrete. causes blood E) vessels in the skin to dilate. causes the pupils to dilate. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving A) two nerves from the spinal cord. B) both autonomic and somatomotor nerves. C) both D) sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. nerves from E) both the brain and the spinal cord. both A and B Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) Sympathe tic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the A) celiac plexus. B) hypogastric C) plexus. cardiac plexus. D) sphenopalatine ganglia. E) otic ganglia. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) Control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon A) sympathetic B) stimulation only. parasympathetic stimulation only. C) somatomotor D) stimulation only. both E) parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation. sensory receptors sensitive to changes in lung ventilation. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) Autonomi c tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it A) allows ANS B) neurons to be silent under normal conditions. allows ANS C) neurons to increase activity on demand but not decrease their activity. allows ANS D) neurons to decrease their activity on demand but not increase their activity. allows ANS E) neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options. provides for a narrow range of control options that keeps target tissues constantly active. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in A) an increase in vessel diameter. B) a decrease in C) vessel diameter. oscillation in D) vessel diameter. an increase in blood flow through the vessel. E) both A and D Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 36) In general, autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels increases when A) sympathetic B) stimulation is increased. sympathetic C) stimulation is decreased. parasympathetic stimulation is increased. D) parasympathetic stimulation is decreased. E) somatomotor stimulation is increased. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex? A) defecation B) reflex vomiting reflex C) pupillary reflex D) ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) Which of the following visceral reflexes is not coordinated by the medulla oblongata? A) swallowing B) reflex vomiting reflex C) coughing reflex D) cardioinhibitory reflex E) pupillary reflex Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function? A) gagging on food that does not appeal to you B) a violent C) coughing attack in response to an irritant increased heart rate when you see a person you fear D) dilation of the pupils when you enter a dark room E) increased salivation when you smell food that appeals to you Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation? A) occipital lobe B) basal nuclei C) hippocampus D) insula E) prefrontal lobe Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) Mechanis ms involved in memory formation and storage involve all of the following, except A) increased B) release of neurotransmitters. anterograde C) amnesia. formation of D) additional synaptic connections. the formation of memory engrams. E) facilitation at synapses. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) Long- term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called A) tertiary B) memories. reflexive C) memories. consolidated D) memories. multilobar E) memories. secondary memories. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) Conversio n of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called A) memory B) conversion. anterograde C) amnesia. memory D) programming. memory E) consolidation. memory engraving. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) The conscious state is maintained by the A) prefrontal lobes. B) general C) interpretive area. limbic system. D) reticular E) activating system. nucleus gracilis. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) Based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the A) medulla. B) pons. C) mesencephalon. D) diencephalon. E) cerebrum. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) An agerelated decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called A) delirium B) agitans. senile dementia. C) persistent D) vegetative state. somnolence of the aged. E) progressive cerebral dysfunction. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is A) somnolence. B) sleep. C) stupor. D) coma. E) a chronic vegetative state. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is A) somnolence. B) sleep. C) stupor. D) coma. E) a chronic vegetative state. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ________ waves. A) alpha B) beta C) theta D) delta E) gamma Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) In deep sleep, A) the EEG pattern is characterized as "slow wave." B) cerebral activity is paradoxically high. C) rapid eye D) movements speed up. rapid eye E) movements are maintained at normal levels. A, B, and C Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 51) After arousal by a sensory stimulus, consciousness can be maintained by positive feedback, because of activity in the A) cerebral cortex. B) basal nuclei. C) sensory D) pathways. motor E) pathways. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 52) Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include A) reduction in B) brain size and weight. decrease in the number of neurons. C) decreased blood flow to the brain. D) all of the above E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) Alzheime r disease is characterized by all of the following, except that it A) is the most B) common cause of senile dementia. is characterized by a progressive loss of memory. C) has a clear D) genetic basis. is associated E) with the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. may be associated with damage to the nucleus basalis. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) Autonomi c efferents A) cause general relaxation. B) cause general excitation. C) conduct D) impulses from sensory receptors. conduct E) impulses to skeletal muscles. conduct impulses to smooth and cardiac muscles and glands. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Pregangli onic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on A) postganglionic fibers. B) visceral reflex responses. C) motor neurons. D) ganglionic E) neurons. afferent neurons. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) Ganglioni c neurons innervate such things as A) smooth muscle. B) cardiac muscle. C) adipose tissue. D) glands. E) any of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)? A) exertion B) trauma C) digestion D) stress E) all of the above Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following? A) somatic division B) craniosacral C) division resting division D) thoracolumbar division E) both B and D Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) In general, sympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are ________. A) myelinated; B) unmyelinated long; short C) short; long D) both A and B E) both A and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) In the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located? A) cervical and B) sacral segments of the spinal cord sacral segments of the spinal cord C) brain stem D) thoracic and E) lumbar segments of the spinal cord both B and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) Craniosa cral division is another name for the A) sympathetic B) division of the ANS. parasympathetic division of the ANS. C) "rest and digest" division. D) both A and C E) both B and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) In general, parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are ________. A) myelinated; B) unmyelinated long; short C) short; long D) both A and B E) both A and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity? A) thoracic B) lumbar C) abdominopelvic D) craniosacral E) both B and C Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) Sympathe tic nerves A) provoke B) feelings of sympathy. allow us to C) relax, rest, and recover. are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity. D) control E) swallowing. stimulate gastric secretion. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 65) Pregangli onic fibers that innervate the collateral ganglia form the A) suprarenal B) medulla. celiac ganglia. C) sympathetic D) chain ganglia. inferior E) mesenteric ganglia. splanchnic nerves. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 66) The celiac ganglia innervate which of the following? A) liver B) spleen C) stomach D) pancreas E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) The suprarenal medullae secrete A) medullin. B) epinephrine. C) norepinephrine. D) renin. E) both B and C A...
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