17_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter17 TheSpecial...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 17 The Special Senses Multiple Choice Questions 1) Olfactory glands A) house the sense of smell. B) support the C) olfactory epithelium. react to D) aromatic molecules. coat the E) olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus. group as olfactory bulbs. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) The mucus that covers the olfactory epithelium does all of the following, except that it A) dilutes B) potentially dangerous odorants. dissolves C) unwanted chemicals and washes them away. keeps the tissue free of particles. D) provides a E) medium to dissolve odorants. keeps the tissue moist. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to A) contact a B) specialized olfactory cell. bind to C) receptors in olfactory cilia. gate open ion channels. D) respond to E) applied pressure. be transported to the olfactory bulbs. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) All of the following are true of olfactory pathways, except A) they project B) first to the mamillary bodies and then to the thalamus. primary C) afferents synapse in the olfactory bulb. information D) flows to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system. they are the E) only sensory pathways to reach the forebrain without first synapsing in the thalamus. they exhibit a considerable amount of convergence. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors? A) olfaction B) audition C) equilibrium D) A, B, and C E) B and C only Answer: A Diff: 3 Skill: Level 3 Questions: Critical Thinking & Clinical Applications 6) Gustatory receptors are located A) in the eye. B) in the ear. C) on the surface of the tongue. D) in the nose. E) on the skin. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of A) light receptors in the eye. B) mechanorecepto rs in the ear. C) olfactory D) receptors. lamellated E) corpuscles. Meissner corpuscles. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the A) medulla B) oblongata. medial C) geniculate. cerebral cortex. D) olfactory bulb. E) olfactory tract. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) The largest numbers of taste buds in adults are associated with the A) pharynx. B) larynx. C) filiform D) papillae. fungiform E) papillae. circumvallate papillae. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves A) IX, X, XI. B) VII, VIII, IX. C) VII, IX, X. D) V, VII, IX. E) IX, XI, XII. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) All of the following are true of the lacrimal glands, except that they A) produce a B) strongly hypertonic fluid. produce most of the volume of tears. C) produce D) lysozyme. produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions. E) are located in recesses in the frontal bones. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) All of the following are true of the fibrous tunic of the eye, except that it A) consists of the sclera, limbus, and cornea. B) provides C) mechanical support and some protection for the eye. produces D) aqueous humor. contributes E) substantial focusing power. is where extrinsic eye muscles insert. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) Which of the following is true of the vascular tunic of the eye? A) provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of the eye B) regulates the C) amount of light entering the eye secretes and D) reabsorbs the aqueous humor controls the E) shape of the lens all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) The palpebrae A) are controlled by cranial nerves. B) contain tarsal glands. C) cover and D) protect the eye. support the E) lateral rectus muscles of the eye. A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The palpebrae are connected at the A) eyelids. B) lateral and C) medial canthus. lacrimal D) caruncle. chalazion. E) conjunctiva. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) A structure that is located at the medial canthus and contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the A) palpebra. B) lacrimal C) caruncle. chalazion. D) Meibomian E) gland. conjunctiva. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Which of following produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges? the A) palpebra B) lacrimal C) caruncle chalazion D) tarsal gland E) conjunctiva Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) The vitreous body A) fills the B) posterior cavity. helps to C) stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina. is replaced at D) the rate of 20 percent per year until middle age. A, B, and C E) A and B only Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye. A) conjunctiva B) cornea C) iris D) anterior E) chamber canthus Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the A) conjunctiva. B) cornea. C) iris. D) pupil. E) canthus. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) The part of the eye that determines eye color is the A) conjunctiva. B) cornea. C) iris. D) pupil. E) canal of Schlemm. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) The opening in the iris through which light passes is the A) conjunctiva. B) cornea. C) pupil. D) anterior E) chamber. posterior chamber. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) The space between the cornea and the iris is the A) anterior cavity. B) posterior cavity. C) canal of D) Schlemm. aqueous humor. E) pupil. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the A) anterior cavity. B) posterior cavity. C) pupil. D) canal of E) Schlemm. vitreous body. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision? A) aqueous humor B) ciliary body C) iris D) extrinsic eye E) muscles none, because the lens is rigid Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 26) The neural tunic A) contains B) ganglion cells. contains the C) photoreceptor cells. produces the D) vitreous humor. A, B, and C E) A and B only Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by A) moving up and down. B) moving in and out. C) changing shape. D) opening and E) closing. dilating and constricting. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) The shape of the lens is controlled by the A) pupillary B) sphincter muscles. pupillary radial muscles. C) ciliary muscles. D) iris. E) A, B, and C Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the A) iris. B) cornea. C) lens. D) aqueous humor. E) vitreous humor. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) The ciliary muscle contracts to A) control the B) amount of light reaching the retina. adjust the shape of the lens for distant vision. C) adjust the shape of the lens for near vision. D) control the E) production of aqueous humor. adjust the shape of the cornea and vitreous. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 31) There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated A) red, yellow, B) blue. red, green, blue. C) red, green, D) yellow. yellow, red, E) blue. red, white, blue. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the A) outer segment. B) inner segment. C) fovea. D) optic disc. E) tapetum lucidum. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) An outer segment containing membranous discs and a narrow connecting stalk that attaches the outer segment to the inner elongate segment describes A) a bipolar cell. B) a photoreceptor. C) a ganglion cell. D) an amacrine E) cell. a horizontal cell. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive A) red. B) blue. C) green. D) white. E) blackness. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) The first step in the process of photoreception is A) the bleaching of rods. B) the bleaching of cones. C) absorption of a photon by a visual pigment. D) inhibition of the sodium pumps. E) release of neurotransmitter. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound A) retinal. B) opsin. C) rhodopsin. D) transducin. E) cGMP. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is A) retinal. B) opsin. C) rhodopsin. D) transducin. E) cGMP. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) The following steps occur in rods when they are excited by photons of light. 1. Membrane sodium channels close. 2. Increased phosphodiesterase breaks down cGMP. 3. Retinal changes from the 11-cis form to the 11-trans form. 4. The membrane hyperpolarizes and the rate of neurotransmitter release declines. 5. Opsin activates transducin. 6. Opsin activation occurs. The proper sequence for these steps is A) 1, 6, 5, 2, 4, 3. B) 3, 6, 5, 2, 1, 4. C) 6, 3, 5, 2, 1, 4. D) 3, 6, 5, 1, 2, 4. E) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 2. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) Which of the following statements concerning vision is false? A) Approximately half of the fibers in each optic nerve cross to opposite sides of the brain at the optic chiasm. B) Fibers of the C) optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculates of the thalamus. The image that is formed on the retina is inverted. D) The entire E) retina receives equal representation in the visual cortex. The visual cortex of the brain receives the entire field of vision. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 40) Which of the following is true about rhodopsin? A) called visual B) purple is bleached C) during photoreception is the visual D) pigment in rods consists of opsin + retinal E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) The external ear ends at the A) vestibule. B) cochlea. C) ossicles. D) tympanic E) membrane. pinna. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) The auditory ossicles connect the A) tympanic B) membrane to the oval window. tympanic C) membrane to the round window. oval window to the round window. D) stapedius to the tympanic membrane. E) otitis to the media. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the A) auditory B) ossicles. cochlea. C) oval window. D) tensor tympani. E) stapedius muscle. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 44) The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the A) auricle. B) membranous C) labyrinth. bony labyrinth. D) auditory tube. E) auditory meatus. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the A) membranous B) endolymph. organ of C) Schlemm. inner ear. D) bony labyrinth. E) perilymph. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the A) basilar B) membrane. tectorial C) membrane. stapedius. D) perilymph. E) endolymph. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the A) tectorial B) membrane. basilar C) membrane. membranous D) labyrinth. vestibular duct. E) tympanic membrane. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the A) semicircular B) canals. cochlea. C) statoconia. D) saccule and E) utricle. organ of Corti. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) When an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells, A) the force is B) converted into mechanical energy. the hair cells are temporarily damaged. C) there is a D) change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells. dizziness E) results. the cells become unresponsive. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the A) saccules. B) ampullae. C) perilymph. D) utricles. E) cupulas. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) Movemen t of the endolymph in the semicircular canals A) produces a B) rushing sound. allows us to C) hear low tones. signals D) rotational movements. signals body E) position with respect to gravity. signals linear acceleration. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in A) ampullae. B) cristae. C) cupulae. D) maculae. E) otoconia. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) Perceptio n of gravity and linear acceleration depends on A) changes in the pressure exerted by the cupula on hair cells. B) vibrations of the tectorial membrane striking hair cells. C) the force D) exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae. the movement of endolymph within the semicircular canals. E) both C and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stapes? A) moves up and down when the stapedius muscle contracts B) auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane C) bending it D) produces receptor potential in hair cells necessary for the static sense of equilibrium E) seals the oval window Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the A) auditory B) ossicles. cochlea. C) oval window. D) round window. E) tympanic membrane. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) The frequency of a perceived sound depends on A) the frequency of stereocilia vibration. B) the number of hair cells that are stimulated. C) which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated. D) the movement of perilymph in the cochlear duct. E) the frequency of vibration of the tectorial membrane. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) The following is a list of the steps that occur in the productio n of an auditory sensation. 1. The pressure wave distorts the basilar membrane on its way to the round window. 2. Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the malleus. 3. Displacement of the stereocilia stimulates sensory neurons of the cochlear nerve. 4. Movement of the malleus causes movement of the incus and stapes. 5. Distortion of the basilar membrane forces the hair cells of the organ of Corti toward or away from the tectorial membrane. 6. Movement of the oval window establishes pressure waves in the perilymph of the vestibular duct. The proper sequence for these steps is A) 2, 4, 1, 6, 5, 3. B) 2, 4, 6, 3, 5, 1. C) 2, 1, 4, 6, 5, 3. D) 2, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3. E) 2, 5, 4, 6, 1, 3. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) The cell bodies of sensory neurons that innervate the hair cells of the cochlea form the ________ ganglion. A) vestibular B) spiral C) cochlear D) acoustic E) auditory Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) The vestibular nuclei at the boundary of the pons and the medulla function in all of the following, except that they A) integrate the B) vestibular information arriving from each side of the head. relay vestibular information to the cerebellum. C) relay vestibular information to the cerebral cortex. D) send commands to motor nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord. E) send information to the vestibular complex of the inner ear. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stereocilia? A) move up and B) down when the stapes moves back and forth transmit C) movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells D) tiny weights E) necessary for the static sense of equilibrium seal the oval window Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) Which of the following is not a component of the lamina propria of the olfactory organ? A) areolar tissue B) blood vessels C) nerves D) olfactory glands E) none of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ________ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs. A) 50 percent B) 8 percent C) 2 percent D) 35 percent E) 10 percent Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places? A) portions of the larynx B) surface of the tongue C) portions of the pharynx D) all of the above E) only B and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) An adult has approximately ________ taste buds. A) 30 B) 3000 C) 300,000 D) 300 E) 30,000 Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) All of the following compose the epithelial projections found on the tongue, except A) fungiform B) papillae. circumvallate papillae. C) filiform D) papillae. gustatory E) papillae. none of the above Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 66) Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)? A) glossopharynge al nerve (IX) B) vagus nerve (X) C) facial nerve D) (VII) all of the above E) only A and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve ________. A) VII B) III C) IX D) V E) XII Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 68) Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations? A) sweet B) peppery C) sour D) salty E) umami Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 69) The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glutamate is known as A) sweet. B) umami. C) salty. D) peppery. E) sour. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 70) Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain? A) frontal lobe B) cerebellum C) parietal lobe D) cerebrum E) medulla oblongata Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 71) A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order? A) conjunctiva → cornea → aqueous humor → lens → vitreous body → retina → choroid B) vitreous body → retina → choroi...
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