18_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter18 The...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 18 The Endocrine System Multiple Choice Questions 1) All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it doesn't A) respond rapidly to stimuli. B) respond C) specifically to stimuli. communicate by the release of neurotransmitters. D) respond with motor output. E) function independently of the endocrine system. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Endocrine cells A) are a type of B) nerve cell. release their C) secretions onto an epithelial surface. release their D) secretions directly into body fluids. contain few E) vesicles. are modified connective-tissue cells. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) Hormones known as "catecholamines" are A) lipids. B) peptides. C) steroids. D) derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine. E) derivatives of reproductive glands. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Peptide hormones are A) composed of B) amino acids. produced by the suprarenal glands. C) derived from D) the amino acid tyrosine. lipids. E) chemically related to cholesterol. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they A) are produced by the suprarenal medulla. B) are derived C) from cholesterol. are produced by reproductive glands. D) bind to E) receptors within the cell. are lipids. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except A) epinephrine. B) norepinephrine. C) thyroid D) hormone. thyroid- stimulating hormone. E) melatonin. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Extracellu lar membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones? A) catecholamines B) peptide C) hormones eicosanoids D) thyroid E) A, B, and C only Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 8) Steroid hormones A) are proteins. B) cannot diffuse through cell membranes. C) bind to D) receptors in the nucleus of their target cells. remain in E) circulation for relatively short periods of time. are transported in the blood dissolved in the plasma. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the A) hormone B) receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm. cell membrane becomes depolarized. C) second D) messenger appears in the cytoplasm. cell becomes inactive. E) hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include A) peptides. B) steroids. C) eicosanoids. D) amino acid E) derivatives. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect A) quantities of B) enzymes. activities of C) enzymes. synthesis of D) enzymes. gating of ion E) channels. any of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually A) cAMP. B) cGMP. C) adenyl cyclase. D) a G protein. E) calcium ion levels. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) When adenyl cyclase is activated, A) ATP is B) consumed. cAMP is C) formed. cAMP is broken down. D) B, C, and D E) only A and B Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex, A) adenyl cyclase is activated. B) cyclic C) nucleotides are formed. G proteins are phosphylated. D) gene E) transcription is initiated. protein kinases are activated. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 15) The most complex endocrine responses involve the A) thyroid gland. B) pancreas. C) suprarenal D) glands. hypothalamus. E) thymus gland. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 16) Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors? A) blood level of an ion-like potassium B) blood level of glucose C) blood level of a hormone D) nervous stimuli E) any of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 17) Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of A) ACTH. B) ADH. C) oxytocin. D) TSH. E) LH. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) Regulator that control secretion of adenohypophyseal hormones are released by neurons at the ________ of the hypothalamus. y factors A) paraventricular nuclei B) supraoptic C) nuclei median D) eminence infundibulum E) geniculate bodies Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) The hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by A) direct neural B) stimulation. indirect osmotic control. C) secreting D) releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system. altering ion E) concentrations and pH in the anterior pituitary. gap synaptic junctions. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 20) Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture A) CRF and B) GnRH. TSH and FSH. C) ADH and D) oxytocin. FSH and PRL. E) GHIH and GHRH. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release A) FSH. B) TSH. C) ADH. D) GH. E) all of the above except C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) The posterior pituitary gland secretes A) FSH. B) TSH. C) ACTH. D) ADH. E) MSH. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is A) FSH. B) ADH. C) TSH. D) MSH. E) ACTH. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, except A) FSH. B) oxytocin. C) TSH. D) corticotropin. E) somatotropin. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) The hormone oxytocin A) promotes B) uterine contractions. is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands. C) triggers prostate gland contraction. D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) Growth hormone does all of the following, except that it A) promotes bone growth. B) promotes C) muscle growth. causes fat D) accumulation within adipocytes. is glucose E) sparing. promotes amino acid uptake by cells. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called A) gonadotrophins. B) prostaglandins. C) hepatic D) hormones. somatomedins. E) glucocorticoids. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is A) TSH. B) ACTH. C) FSH. D) LH. E) GH. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is A) TSH. B) ACTH. C) FSH. D) LH. E) GH. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is A) TSH. B) ACTH. C) FSH. D) LH. E) GH. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is A) TSH. B) ACTH. C) FSH. D) LH. E) GH. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is A) TSH. B) ACTH. C) growth D) hormone. FSH. E) prolactin. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is A) ACTH. B) MSH. C) prolactin. D) insulin. E) somatotropin. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is A) TSH. B) FSH. C) MSH. D) STH. E) ADH. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues? A) increased B) oxygen consumption increased heart rate C) increased D) sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation increased body temperature E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) Thyroid hormone contains the element A) fluorine. B) chlorine. C) iron. D) iodine. E) zinc. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of A) hyperthyroidis m. B) hypothyroidism. C) hyperparathyroi dism. D) hypoparathyroi dism. E) being a turtle on ice. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is A) somatotropin. B) thyroxine. C) calcitonin. D) parathyroid E) hormone. glucagon. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is A) parathyroid B) hormone. thyroxine. C) calcitonin. D) glucagon. E) oxytocin. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) The condition known as goiter can result from too A) much insulin. B) little TSH. C) much ACTH. D) little iodine in the diet. E) little glucagon. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 41) The C cells of the thyroid gland produce A) thyroxine. B) TSH. C) calcitonin. D) PTH. E) triiodothyronine . Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood. A) thymosin B) calcitonin C) PTH D) aldosterone E) cortisol Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is A) insulin. B) glucagon. C) growth D) hormone. parathyroid E) hormone. thyroid hormone. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) Angiotens in I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the A) kidneys. B) liver. C) heart. D) lungs. E) blood. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of A) angiotensin. B) cortisol. C) erythropoietin. D) atrial natriuretic peptide. E) adrenaline. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that A) stimulates the formation of white blood cells. B) increases the C) level of calcium ions in the blood. increases the D) level of sodium ions in the blood. increases the E) level of potassium ions in the blood. increases the level of glucose in the blood. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces A) androgens. B) glucocorticoids. C) mineralocortico ids. D) epinephrine. E) norepinephrine. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces A) androgens. B) glucocorticoids. C) mineralocortico ids. D) epinephrine. E) norepinephrine. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces A) androgens. B) glucocorticoids. C) mineralocortico ids. D) epinephrine. E) norepinephrine. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) The suprarenal medulla produces A) androgens. B) glucocorticoids. C) mineralocortico ids. D) catecholamines. E) corticosteroids. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is A) aldosterone. B) erythropoietin. C) thymosin. D) cortisol. E) parathormone. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is A) cortisol. B) parathormone. C) thymosin. D) somatotropin. E) aldosterone. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is A) cortisol. B) somatotropin. C) insulin. D) glucagon. E) aldosterone. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes A) goiter. B) diabetes C) mellitus. diabetes D) insipidus. Addison E) disease. Cushing disease. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is A) aldosterone. B) insulin. C) cortisol. D) calcitonin. E) renin. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) Pinealocy tes produce A) MSH. B) FSH. C) LH. D) melanin. E) melatonin. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) When blood glucose levels rise, A) insulin is B) released. glucagon is C) released. peripheral cells take up less glucose. D) protein E) synthesis decreases. peripheral cells break down glycogen. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 58) When blood glucose levels fall, A) insulin is B) released. glucagon is C) released. peripheral cells take up more glucose. D) protein E) synthesis increases. both B and D Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) Cells of the suprarenal cortex produce A) epinephrine. B) norepinephrine. C) aldosterone. D) ACTH. E) angiotensin. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce A) insulin. B) glucagon. C) somatostatin. D) cortisol. E) peptide P. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce A) insulin. B) glucagon. C) somatostatin. D) cortisol. E) peptide P. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) Each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it A) is a component of the epithalamus. B) is a component of the hypothalamus. C) secretes D) melatonin. contains E) pinealocytes. responds to light and darkness. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces A) insulin. B) glucagon. C) somatotropin. D) digestive E) enzymes. bile. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) The pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) A) contain four B) types of endocrine cells. make up almost half of the pancreas. C) produce some digestive enzymes. D) all of the above E) A and B only Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is A) somatotropin. B) cortisol. C) insulin. D) glucagon. E) erythropoietin. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 66) Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in A) acromegaly. B) goiter. C) diabetes D) mellitus. diabetes E) insipidus. Addison disease. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) The interstitial cells of the testes produce A) LH. B) progesterone. C) testosterone. D) inhibin. E) FSH. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 68) Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ________ when stimulated by FSH. A) estrogen B) progesterone C) testosterone D) inhibin E) gonadotropins Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 69) A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes A) testosterone. B) progesterone. C) aldosterone. D) cortisone. E) androstenedione . Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 70) When hormones interact they can produce any of the following kinds of effects, except A) antagonistic. B) synergistic. C) permissive. D) integrative. E) bucolic. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 71) The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is A) testosterone. B) LH. C) inhibin. D) aldosterone. E) somatostatin. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 72) The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are A) thymosins. B) corticosteroids. C) aldosterones. D) thyroxines. E) somatotropins. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 73) Which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells? A) cortisol B) erythropoietin C) thymosin D) aldosterone E) atrial natriuretic peptide Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 74) Proper growth requires which of these hormones? A) thyroid B) hormone calcitriol C) insulin D) growth E) hormone all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 75) Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones? A) somatostatin B) thyroxine C) growth D) hormone sex hormones E) both C and D Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 76) Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause A) dwarfism. B) rickets. C) gigantism. D) acromegaly. E) diabetes insipidus. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 77) The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is A) testosterone. B) aldosterone. C) cortisol. D) thyroid E) hormone. epinephrine. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 78) During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is A) decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles and skin. B) decreased C) mental alertness. mobilization of energy reserves. D) increased urine release. E) decreased rate of respiration. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 79) If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). A) alarm B) resistance C) exhaustion D) extension E) prolonged Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 80) Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the A) mineralocortico ids. B) androgens. C) glucocorticoids. D) catecholamines. E) gonadotropins. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 81) During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) A) lipid reserves are mobilized. B) proteins are C) conserved. blood glucose levels fall drastically. D) levels of growth hormone decrease. E) levels of insulin decrease. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 82) The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by A) decreased B) resistance to disease and infection. increasing C) ability to produce glucose from glycogen. increased D) pumping effectiveness of the heart. all of the above E) A and C only Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 83) Cholecalc iferol is synthesized within the A) bone marrow of the skeletal system. B) splenic pulp of the lymphatic system. C) endothelial D) linings of...
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