20_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter20 TheHeart 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 20 The Heart Multiple Choice Questions 1) Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the A) right atrium. B) right ventricle. C) left atrium. D) left ventricle. E) conus arteriosus. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the A) right atrium. B) right ventricle. C) left atrium. D) left ventricle. E) conus arteriosus. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The earlike extension of the atrium is the A) ventricle. B) coronary sinus. C) coronary sulcus. D) auricle. E) atricle. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) The coronary sulcus is a groove that A) marks the B) border between the atria and ventricles. marks the C) boundary line between the right and left ventricles. marks the D) boundary line between the right and left atria. separates the E) atrioventricular valves from the atria. separates the coronary arteries from the coronary veins. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the A) pleural space. B) pericardial C) space. mediastinum. D) cardiac notch. E) ventral cavity. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) The cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to A) papillary B) muscles. trabeculae C) carneae. chordae D) tendineae. interatrial septa. E) coronary sulci. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Contracti ons of the papillary muscles A) close the B) atrioventricular valves. close the C) semilunar valves. eject blood D) from the ventricles. prevent the E) atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria. eject blood from the atria into the ventricles. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) The visceral pericardium is the same as the A) mediastinum. B) parietal C) pericardium. epicardium. D) myocardium. E) endocardium. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of A) cardiac B) myocytes. chondrocytes. C) epitheliocytes. D) fibrocytes. E) smooth muscle cells. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 10) The right ventricle pumps blood to the A) right and left B) lungs. left ventricle. C) left atrium. D) aorta. E) right atrium. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) The left ventricle pumps blood to the A) lungs. B) right ventricle. C) right atrium. D) aorta. E) pulmonary circuit. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) The right atrium receives blood from the A) coronary sinus. B) superior vena cava. C) inferior vena D) cava. A, B, and C E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the ________ valve. A) mitral B) bicuspid C) tricuspid D) pulmonary E) semilunar aortic semilunar Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) As blood leaves the right ventricle it passes through the ________ and then into the pulmonary trunk. A) pulmonary B) veins conus arteriosus C) aorta D) inferior vena E) cava superior vena cava Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backward flow into the A) aorta. B) pulmonary C) trunk. pulmonary D) veins. right ventricle. E) left atrium. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) The bicuspid or mitral valve is located A) in the opening of the aorta. B) in the opening of the pulmonary trunk. C) where the venae cavae join the right atrium. D) between the E) right atrium and right ventricle. between the left atrium and left ventricle. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) The ________ valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium. A) semicaval B) semilunar C) bicuspid D) tricuspid E) pulmonic Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) The function of the atrium is to A) collect blood. B) pump blood to the lungs. C) pump blood D) into the systemic circuit. pump blood to the ventricle. E) both A and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has all the following characteristics, except that it A) has a thicker B) wall. is round in cross section. C) pumps a greater volume. D) works harder. E) produces about six to eight times more pressure when it contracts. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart. 1. right atrium 2. left atrium 3. right ventricle 4. left ventricle 5. venae cavae 6. aorta 7. pulmonary trunk 8. pulmonary veins What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation? A) 1, 2, 7, 8, 3, 4, 6, 5 B) 1, 7, 3, 8, 2, 4, 6, 5 C) 5, 1, 3, 7, 8, 2, 4, 6 D) 5, 3, 1, 7, 8, 4, 2, 6 E) 5, 1, 3, 8, 7, 2, 4, 6 Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the A) heart. B) lungs. C) brain. D) intestines. E) liver. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) The pulmonary veins carry blood to the A) heart. B) lungs. C) brain. D) intestines. E) liver. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the A) right atrium. B) left atrium. C) right ventricle. D) left ventricle. E) interatrial septum. Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 24) Blood is supplied to the myocardium by A) the coronary B) sinus. contact with C) blood in the pumping chambers. the coronary D) arteries. arteries that E) branch from the pulmonary arteries. both A and C Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the ________ arteries. A) pulmonary B) coronary C) circumflex D) carotid E) subclavian Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) The marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the A) right coronary artery. B) left coronary C) artery. circumflex D) artery. coronary sinus. E) aorta. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) The circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular artery are branches of the A) right coronary artery. B) left coronary C) artery. interventricular artery. D) coronary sinus. E) aorta. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the A) superior vena cava. B) inferior vena C) cava. coronary sinus. D) coronary sulcus. E) aorta. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) The heart is innervated by ________ nerves. A) parasympathetic B) sympathetic C) both D) parasympathetic and sympathetic neither E) parasympathetic nor sympathetic somatomotor Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) In cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of A) increased B) membrane permeability to sodium ions. increased C) membrane permeability to potassium ions. decreased D) membrane permeability to calcium ions. decreased E) membrane permeability to sodium ions. increased membrane permeability to chloride ions. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to A) movement of B) fewer sodium ions across the cell membrane. calcium C) channels remaining open. increased D) membrane permeability to potassium ion. decrease in the amount of calcium diffusing across the membrane. E) increased membrane permeability to sodium ions. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) In cardiac muscle A) calcium ions are not released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. B) calcium ions do not bind to troponin molecules. C) calcium ions D) play no role in the process of contraction. at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell. E) calcium ions play an important role in repolarizing the membrane after the depolarization phase. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in the A) Purkinje fibers. B) sinoatrial node. C) atrioventricular node. D) wall of the left ventricle. E) both the left and right ventricles. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) The following are structural componen ts of the conductin g system of the heart. 1. Purkinje fibers 2. AV bundle 3. AV node 4. SA node 5. bundle branches The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is A) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5. B) 3, 2, 4, 5, 1. C) 3, 5, 4, 2, 1. D) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1. E) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) The P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from A) depolarization of the SA node. B) depolarization of the AV node. C) depolarization of the atria. D) repolarization of the atria. E) depolarization of the ventricles. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) Depolariz ation of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the A) P wave. B) T wave. C) S wave. D) QRS complex. E) PR complex. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) The T wave on an ECG tracing represents A) atrial B) depolarization. atrial C) repolarization. ventricular D) depolarization. ventricular E) repolarization. ventricular contraction. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) Analysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the following, except the A) heart rate. B) stroke volume. C) condition of the conducting system. D) effects of drugs and poisons. E) duration of the ventricular action potential. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) The first heart sound is heard when the A) AV valves B) open. AV valves C) close. semilunar D) valves close. atria contract. E) blood enters the aorta. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) During the isovolumetric phase of ventricular systole, the A) atria are B) contracting and the ventricles are relaxing. atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves are closed. C) blood is ejected into the great vessels. D) all of the above E) B and C only Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) During the cardiac cycle, the A) P wave of the ECG occurs between the first and second heart sounds. B) QRS complex of the ECG precedes the increase in ventricular pressure. C) second heart D) sound occurs during atrial systole. first heart sound coincides with the QRS complex of the ECG. E) both B and D Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the A) end-diastolic volume. B) end-systolic volume. C) stroke volume. D) cardiac output. E) cardiac reserve. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output, except A) increased B) venous return. increased C) parasympathetic stimulation. increased D) sympathetic stimulation. increased heart rate. E) both A and B Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 44) "An increase in end-diastolic volume increases the stroke volume" is a way of stating A) Robin's law of the heart. B) Finch's law of the heart. C) Starling's law of the heart. D) Sparrow's law of the heart. E) Hawking's law of the heart. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) Which of the following would increase heart rate? A) increased B) sympathetic stimulation of SA node decreased C) parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers increased levels of epinephrine D) faster E) depolarization of the pacemaker potential all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the A) atrial systole. B) early diastolic filling phase. C) late diastolic D) filling phase. systolic ejection phase. E) dicrotic phase. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 47) Drugs that block the beta-one adrenergic receptors will A) increase heart rate. B) decrease heart rate. C) increase D) contractility. increase cardiac output. E) decrease the end-systolic volume. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) Artery is to ________ as vein is to ________. A) efferent; B) afferent afferent; C) efferent toward; away D) afferent; away E) none of the above Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) The heart beats approximately ________ times each day. A) 1,000 B) 10,000 C) 100,000 D) 1,000,000 E) 10,000,000 Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) The heart pumps approximately ________ liters of blood each day. A) 8,000 B) 15,000 C) 20,000 D) 50,000 E) 100,000 Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) The heart is roughly the size of A) a thigh. B) a man's C) clenched fist. the gallbladder. D) the hand of a 10-year-old. E) Texas. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right because A) the left ventricle does more work than the right ventricle. B) the left ventricle pumps a greater volume of blood than the right ventricle. C) the left ventricle produces a higher pressure than the right. D) both A and B E) both A and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 53) Which of the following descriptions matches the term near the left fifth intercostal space? A) pericardial B) cavity visceral C) pericardium apex of heart D) aorta E) right atrium Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 54) The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is known as A) cardiac B) tamponade. mitral valve C) prolapse. pleural effusion. D) cardiomyopathy . E) pericarditis. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 55) The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus contain A) fat. B) arteries. C) veins. D) all of the above E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 56) Intercalat ed discs serve to transfer ________ from cell to cell. A) ionic currents B) action potentials C) the force of D) contraction all of the above E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 3 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 57) Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells differ in a few ways. Which of the following is not one of them? A) Cardiac muscle cells are smaller in size. B) Cardiac muscle cells have a single, centered nucleus. C) Cardiac muscle cells branch. D) Skeletal muscle cells lack intercalated discs. E) Cardiac muscle cells lack transverse tubules. Answer: E Diff: 3 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 58) The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow A) in one direction only. B) in both C) directions. in many D) directions. in opposite E) directions on the right and left. both A and D Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) During the T wave of the electrocardiogram, the ventricles are A) depolarizing. B) repolarizing. C) contracting. D) relaxing. E) both B and D Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 60) Coronary veins empty into the A) left atrium. B) left ventricle. C) right atrium. D) right ventricle. E) conus arteriosus. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 61) There are ________ pulmonary veins. A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 E) none of the above Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) Rupture of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle may result in A) mitral B) regurgitation. mitral valve C) prolapse. bicuspid D) regurgitation. bicuspid E) prolapse. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 63) When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves then A) close. B) open. C) make the third heart sound. D) both B and C E) both A and C Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 64) The ________ deliver(s) blood to the myocardium. A) right coronary artery B) right coronary vein C) superior vena cava D) left coronary E) artery both A and D Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) The ________ ventricle has a greater workload than the ________. A) left; right B) ventricle right; left C) ventricle right; systemic circulation D) both A and C E) none of the above Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 66) The connective tissue fibers of the myocardium A) add strength B) and prevent overexpansion of the heart. help distribute the forces of contraction. C) provide D) elasticity to help return the heart to its normal size. provide E) physical support for cardiac muscle. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) Blood is supplied to the left atrium by the A) brachiocephalic artery. B) right coronary artery. C) left coronary D) artery. phrenic arteries. E) pulmonary arteries. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 68) A heart murmur might be caused by A) aortic valve B) stenosis. mitral valve C) insufficiency. pulmonic valve insufficiency. D) B or C E) A or B or C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 69) A heartbeat lasts A) 3 seconds. B) 370 msec. C) 5 seconds. D) 100 msec. E) none of the above Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 70) Pacemake r cells in the SA node A) have a well- defined resting potential. B) show a slow C) spontaneous depolarization. are connected by gap junctions to atrial myocytes. D) both B and C E) both A and C Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 71) The first heart sound ("lub") A) is associated B) with atrial systole. is associated C) with closing of the mitral valve. is associated D) with opening of the mitral valve. is associated E) with closing of the aortic valve. is associated with opening of the aortic valve. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 72) Pacemake r cells isolated from the SA node generate action potentials at ________ beats per minute. A) 20—40 B) 40—60 C) 80—100 D) 100—140 E) 140—180 Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 73) ________ is to slow heart rate as ________ is to fast heart rate. A) Tachycardia; B) bradycardia Bradycardia; C) cardiomyopathy Bradycardia; D) tachycardia Cardiac E) tamponade; bradycardia none of the above Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 74) Depolariz ation of the atria corresponds to the EKG's A) P wave. B) QRS complex. C) QT interval. D) T wave. E) S-T segment. Answer: A Diff: 3 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 75) ________ is to contraction as ________ is to relaxation. A) Systole; diastole B) Diastole; C) systole Filling; relaxing D) Ejection; filling E) both A and D Answer: E Diff: 2 Skil...
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