21_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter21 Blood Vesselsand Circulation 1 The A tunicaintima B tunicaexterna C tunicamedia D tunicainterna E tunica

21_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter21 Blood...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 21 Blood Vessels and Circulation Multiple Choice Questions 1) The muscular layer of a blood vessel is the A) tunica intima. B) tunica externa. C) tunica media. D) tunica interna. E) tunica adventitia. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Compared to arteries, veins A) are more elastic. B) have more C) smooth muscle in their tunica media. have a pleated endothelium. D) have thinner E) walls. hold their shape better when cut. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the output side to the input side of the cardiovascular flow circuit. 1. venules 2. arterioles 3. capillaries 4. elastic arteries 5. medium veins 6. large veins 7. muscular arteries A) 7, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6 B) 6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4 C) 5, 6, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4 D) 2, 7, 6, 3, 1, 5, 6 E) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6 Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Capillarie s that have a complete lining are called A) continuous B) capillaries. fenestrated C) capillaries. sinusoidal D) capillaries. sinusoids. E) vasa vasorum. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) Capillarie s with a perforated lining are called A) perforated B) capillaries. discontinuous capillaries. C) fenestrated D) capillaries. sinuses. E) vasa vasorum. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in A) arteries. B) arterioles. C) veins. D) venules. E) capillaries. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Materials can move across capillary walls by A) diffusion. B) filtration. C) reabsorption. D) all of the above E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) Blood flow through a capillary is controlled by the A) vasa vasorum. B) plexus. C) precapillary D) sphincter. thoroughfare channel. E) venule. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except A) the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries. B) pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein. C) the respiratory pump. D) valves in the E) veins preventing the backward flow of blood. muscular compression. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Metabolit es exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations? A) artery B) arteriole C) capillary D) venule E) vein Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 11) Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the A) length of a B) blood vessel. osmolarity of interstitial fluids. C) flow D) characteristics. blood viscosity. E) blood vessel diameter. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) As blood travels from arteries to veins, A) pressure builds. B) pressure drops. C) flow becomes turbulent. D) viscosity E) increases. diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the A) level of oxygen at the tissue increases. B) level of carbon dioxide at the tissue decreases. C) veins constrict. D) arterioles dilate. E) both C and D Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 14) Blood pressure is determined by A) measuring the size of the pulse. B) listening C) carefully to the pulse. estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff. D) estimating the degree of turbulence in a partly closed vessel. E) measuring the force of contraction of the left ventricle. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) Blood pressure is highest here. A) artery B) arteriole C) capillary D) venule E) vein Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 16) Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased A) cardiac output. B) peripheral C) resistance. blood volume. D) parasympathetic innervation. E) force of cardiac contraction. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure. A) critical closing B) mean arterial C) pulse D) blood E) circulatory Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the A) concentration of plasma sodium ions. B) concentration of plasma glucose. C) concentration of plasma waste products. D) concentration of plasma proteins. E) number of red blood cells. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space? A) Blood B) hydrostatic pressure forces fluid from the capillary to the interstitial space. Blood osmotic pressure moves fluid from the interstitial space to the capillary. C) The osmotic D) pressure of the interstitial fluid is less than the blood osmotic pressure. The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid is largely unimportant in determining fluid movement. E) The net filtration pressure is usually zero. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) When renin is released from the kidney A) angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II. B) angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I. C) angiotensin I D) increases salt reabsorption at the kidneys. blood pressure goes down. E) blood flow to the kidneys decreases. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure, except A) release of renin. B) decrease in C) blood volume. decreased D) peripheral resistance. increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). E) increased levels of aldosterone. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except A) increased levels of aldosterone. B) increased levels of angiotensin II. C) increased blood volume. D) increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). E) increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone). Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue, except A) increased B) hematocrit. increased vessel diameter. C) increased blood pressure. D) decreased E) peripheral resistance. relaxation of precapillary sphincters. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) Pulmonar y arteries carry blood to the A) right atrium. B) left atrium. C) lungs. D) aorta. E) systemic circuit. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) Pulmonar y veins carry blood to the A) right atrium. B) left atrium. C) lungs. D) aorta. E) pulmonary circuit. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) Which of the following obeys the rule that arteries carry blood away from the heart? A) right coronary artery B) left circumflex artery C) common carotid artery D) marginal artery E) left descending artery Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Each of the following arteries is a component of the cerebral arterial circle, except the A) anterior B) communicating artery. anterior cerebral artery. C) posterior D) communicating artery. posterior E) cerebral artery. basilar artery. Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the ________ artery. A) internal carotid B) external carotid C) mental D) azygos E) maxillary Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) Blood from the brain returns to the heart through the ________ vein. A) vertebral B) azygos C) innominate D) internal jugular E) external jugular Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) Which of the following are characteristics of cardiovascular regulation? A) blood flow B) through tissues meets the demand for oxygen blood flow C) changes to match tissue responses changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure D) blood flow E) through tissues meets the demand for nutrients all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) Stimulatio n of the aortic baroreceptors reflexly results in A) stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center in the brain. B) increased C) sympathetic stimulation of the heart. increased D) activity by the parasympathetic nervous system. stimulation of the vasoconstrictive center. E) increased heart rate. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) Fear can result in A) increased B) stimulation of the cardioinhibitory center by higher brain centers. increased C) stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers. increased heart rate. D) decreased blood pressure. E) both B and C Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) During exercise A) vasodilation B) occurs at the active skeletal muscles. venous return increases. C) both cardiac D) output and stroke volume increase. all of the above E) A and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) In response to hemorrhage, there is A) peripheral B) vasoconstriction. increased C) parasympathetic stimulation of the heart. mobilization of the venous reserve. D) all of the above E) A and C only Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) The hormone that produces cardiovascular effects similar to activation of the sympathetic nervous system is: A) acetylcholine. B) epinephrine. C) bradykinin. D) tachykinin. E) sympathetic neuropeptide. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) Homeosta tic mechanisms in response to blood loss include all of the following, except A) uptake of B) interstitial fluid due to reduced capillary pressure. inhibition of C) EPO secretion. activation of D) ADH secretion. activation of E) aldosterone secretion. increased thirst and water intake. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 37) Branches off the aortic arch include the A) brachiocephalic trunk. B) left subclavian artery. C) left common D) carotid artery. all of the above E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) Major branches of the subclavian artery include the ________ artery(ies). A) radial B) brachial C) lateral thoracic D) digital E) both B and C Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the ________ artery. A) radial B) ulnar C) brachial D) axillary E) digital Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) After entering the arm, the axillary artery becomes the ________ artery. A) radial B) ulnar C) brachial D) subclavian E) digital Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) The brachial artery branches to form the radial and ________ arteries. A) axillary B) digital C) ulnar D) subclavian E) brachiocephalic Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) The two vertebral arteries fuse to form a large artery, the A) circle of Willis. B) common carotid artery. C) external carotid artery. D) internal carotid artery. E) basilar artery. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) The internal carotids and the basilar artery are interconnected by an anastomosis called the A) common carotid artery. B) basal ring. C) cerebral arterial circle. D) external carotid artery. E) arterial bypass Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) Near the carotid sinus, A) the common B) carotid divides into an internal and an external branch. the internal C) carotids fuse with the vertebral arteries. the external D) carotid forms the internal carotid. veins and E) arteries anastomose. the aorta gives rise to the common carotids. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The ________ divides the aorta into the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta. A) pericardium B) mediastinum C) diaphragm D) peritoneum E) pleura Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) Branches of the thoracic aorta include all of the following, except the ________ arteries. A) basilar B) superior phrenic C) esophageal D) bronchial E) intercostal Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ________ arteries. A) common carotid B) common iliac C) femoral D) tibial E) popliteal Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) The external iliac artery branches to form the ________ arteries. A) radial and ulnar B) femoral and C) popliteal femoral and D) tibial tibial and E) popliteal femoral and deep femoral Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) At the knee, the femoral artery becomes the ________ artery. A) iliac B) deep femoral C) popliteal D) tibial E) peroneal Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) Branches of the popliteal artery include the A) femoral artery. B) fibular artery. C) iliac artery. D) dorsalis pedis. E) plantar arch. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) The vessel that receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and arms is the A) internal jugular vein. B) external jugular vein. C) superior vena cava. D) inferior vena E) cava. coronary sinus. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) Veins of the brain empty into A) coronary B) sinuses. dural sinuses. C) the circle of D) Willis. external jugular veins. E) vertebral veins. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) The superior sagittal sinus collects blood from the A) heart. B) lungs. C) brain. D) arms. E) legs. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) Veins of the upper arm include the ________ vein(s). A) basilic B) cephalic C) brachial D) A and C only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm? A) azygos B) hemiazygos C) cephalic D) radial E) basilic Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ________ vein. A) azygos B) hemiazygos C) axillary D) brachial E) basilic Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the ________ vein. A) cephalic B) azygos C) subclavian D) innominate E) external jugular Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) The vein that is formed from the fusion of the subclavian with the internal and external jugulars is the ________ vein. A) azygos B) hemiazygos C) axillary D) iliac E) brachiocephalic Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins forms the A) inferior vena B) cava. superior vena cava. C) innominate D) vein. subclavian vein. E) azygos vein. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) Which of these contributes to the formation of the popliteal vein? A) internal iliac B) small saphenous and great saphenous C) anterior and D) posterior tibial and fibular peroneal and E) popliteal great saphenous and posterior tibial Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) Blood from capillaries on the superior surface of the foot drain into a(n) A) plantar vein. B) dorsal venous arch. C) small saphenous vein. D) peroneal vein. E) iliac vein. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) Blood from the dorsal venous arch is drained by the ________ vein(s). A) small saphenous B) posterior tibial C) great saphenous D) A, B, and C E) A and C only Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) At the knee, the small saphenous, tibial, and fibular veins unite to form the ________ vein. A) femoral B) popliteal C) external iliac D) internal iliac E) inferior vena cava Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) When the popliteal vein reaches the femur, it becomes the ________ vein. A) femoral B) deep femoral C) internal iliac D) external iliac E) lumbar Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) The ________ vein is formed by the fusion of the greater saphenous vein, femoral vein, and deep femoral vein. A) internal iliac B) external iliac C) common iliac D) inferior vena E) cava azygous Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 66) The two common iliac veins form the A) femoral vein. B) greater C) saphenous vein. inferior vena D) cava. hepatic portal vein. E) innominate vein. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) Nutrients from the digestive tract enter the A) inferior vena B) cava. superior vena cava. C) hepatic portal vein. D) hepatic vein. E) azygos vein. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 68) Elderly individuals usually have A) reduced B) hematocrits. stiff inelastic C) arteries. increased blood pressure. D) decreased E) cardiac reserve. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 69) Elderly individuals are more prone than are younger individuals to have all of the following, except A) hypertension. B) venous C) thrombosis. increased D) elasticity of vessel walls. problems with the conducting system of the heart. E) arteriosclerosis. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 70) Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries? A) decreased B) plasma albumen increased blood hydrostatic pressure C) increased tissue hydrostatic pressure D) both A and B E) A, B, and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 71) The smallest arterial branches are called the A) precapillary B) arterioles. arterioles. C) capillaries. D) venules. E) veins. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 72) The layer between the tunica media and the tunica externa in a large artery is the A) tunica intima. B) external elastic membrane. C) tunica media. D) internal elastic membrane. E) tunica externa. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 73) The thoroughfare channel ends at the A) artery. B) arteriole. C) capillary. D) venule. E) vein. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 74) Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers? A) tunica intima B) external elastic membrane C) tunica media D) internal elastic membrane E) tunica externa Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 75) After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the A) arteries. B) arterioles. C) capillaries. D) venules. E) veins. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 76) Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue? A) tunica intima B) external elastic membrane C) tunica media D) internal elastic membrane E) ...
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