22_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter22 The Lymphoid Systemand Immunity 1 The ,except A lymphatic B vessels thevenaecavae C thespleen D

22_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter22 The Lymphoid...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 22 The Lymphoid System and Immunity Multiple Choice Questions 1) The lymphoid system is composed of all of the following, except A) lymphatic B) vessels. the venae cavae. C) the spleen. D) lymph nodes. E) lymph. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) The primary function of the lymphoid system is A) circulation of nutrients. B) the transport of hormones. C) defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats. D) the production and distribution of plasma proteins. E) both B and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) The lymphoid system does all of the following, except that it A) helps maintain normal blood volume. B) transports gases to and away from lymph nodes. C) eliminates D) variations in the composition of interstitial fluid. transports lipids from the digestive tract. E) fights infection. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following, except that they A) have no B) basement membrane. are larger in C) diameter. have walls of endothelial cells that overlap like shingles. D) are smaller in diameter. E) are frequently irregular in shape. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the A) right lymphatic duct. B) thoracic duct. C) cisterna chyli. D) hepatic portal vein. E) dural sinus. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the A) left breast. B) right breast. C) left arm and D) shoulder. pelvic viscera. E) left side of neck. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) Lymph nodes do all of the following, except that they A) produce B) antibodies. monitor the C) contents of lymph. remove debris and pathogens from the lymph. D) accumulate E) cancer cells. remove excess nutrients from the lymph. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) All of the following are true of the thymus gland, except that it A) activates B B) cells. reaches its C) greatest relative size during the second year of life. involutes after puberty. D) produces T E) cells. lies in the anterior mediastinum. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) In general, lymphocytes A) spend most of their time in lymphoid tissue. B) have relatively long life spans. C) have two nuclei. D) all of the above E) A and B only Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) Lymphoc ytes A) are actively B) phagocytic. destroy red C) blood cells. respond to D) antigens. are primarily found in red bone marrow. E) decrease in number during infection. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) Lymphoc ytes may be found in which of the following tissues or organs? A) tonsils B) spleen C) lymph nodes D) thymus E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) ________ are large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx. A) Tonsils B) Peyer patches C) Lymph nodes D) Immune E) complexes Spleens Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) ________ are clusters of lymphoid nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine. A) Tonsils B) Adenoids C) Peyer patches D) Immune E) complexes Lymph glands Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) The term lymphadenopathy refers to A) a congenital B) lack of lymph nodes. a chronic or C) excessive enlargement of lymph nodes. accumulations of lymph in the tissue space. D) the lack of E) lymphocytes in peripheral circulation. increased numbers of circulating lymphocytes. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as A) Peyer patches. B) adenoids. C) white pulp. D) red pulp. E) lymph nodes. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) Which class of leucocytes is particularly abundant in the red pulp of the spleen? A) T lymphocytes. B) free and fixed macrophages. C) B lymphocytes. D) neutrophils. E) red blood cells. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Lymphoid organs differ from lymphoid tissues in what way? A) They contain T lymphocytes and lymphoid tissues do not. B) They are found in the digestive tract and lymphoid tissues are found in the thorax. C) They are D) surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphoid tissues are not. They cannot E) produce antibodies, whereas lymphoid tissues can. both A and B Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) The largest single collection of lymphoid tissue in the adult body is located in the A) liver. B) thymus. C) tonsils. D) spleen. E) lymph nodes. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) The white pulp of the spleen is populated by A) lymphocytes. B) trabeculae. C) arteries. D) veins. E) fibrous connective tissue. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) The body's nonspecific defenses include all of the following, except A) the skin. B) complement. C) interferon. D) inflammation. E) antibodies. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except A) body hair. B) epithelium. C) secretions. D) complement. E) basement membranes. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) An inflammatory response is triggered when A) red blood cells release pyrogens. B) T cells release interferon. C) mast cells D) release histamine and heparin. neutrophils E) phagocytize bacteria. blood flow to an area increases. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) The release of endogenous pyrogen (or interleukin-1) by active macrophages would A) cause B) inflammation. produce a fever. C) activate D) complement. opsonize E) pathogens. activate antibodies. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) Characteri stics of specific defenses include A) versatility. B) tolerance. C) memory. D) specificity. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by A) nonspecific B) immunity. specific C) immunity. immunological surveillance. D) skin defenses. E) fever. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the A) T cells. B) B cells. C) NK cells. D) phagocytes. E) plasma cells. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) Micropha ges include A) monocytes. B) Kupffer cells. C) neutrophils. D) eosinophils. E) both C and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) Various types of macrophages are derived from A) lymphocytes. B) monocytes. C) neutrophils. D) eosinophils. E) basophils. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except A) destruction of target cell plasma membranes. B) stimulation of inflammation. C) inhibition of the immune response. D) opsonization. E) chemotaxis. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds to A) the cell wall of bacteria. B) the plasma C) membrane of bacteria. an antibody D) attached to an antigen. a cell surface antigen. E) a plasma protein. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity. A) active B) natural passive C) passive D) auto E) innate Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity. A) naturally B) acquired active natural passive C) passive D) auto E) innate Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) Immunity that results from antibodies that pass the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity. A) active B) naturally C) acquired passive passive D) auto E) innate Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) In passive immunization, the A) immune system attacks normal body cells. B) body is C) deliberately exposed to an antigen. body receives antibodies produced by other humans. D) body receives antibodies produced by an animal. E) either C or D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) The cells responsible for the production of circulating immunoglobulins are ________ cells. A) NK B) plasma C) helper T D) thymus E) liver Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 36) The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the ________ cells. A) B B) plasma C) helper T D) cytotoxic T E) suppressor T Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ________ cells. A) NK B) B C) helper T D) cytotoxic T E) suppressor T Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) The medullary cords of a lymph node contain ________ lymphocytes and plasma cells. A) cytotoxic T B) medullary C) NK D) B E) cordal Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the A) bone marrow. B) liver. C) spleen. D) thymus. E) kidneys. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) Lymphoc ytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells. A) B B) plasma C) helper T D) cytotoxic T E) suppressor T Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) Cells that help regulate the immune response are ________ cells. A) B B) plasma C) helper T D) cytotoxic T E) NK Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) Suppresso r T cells act to A) suppress B) antigens. erase memory T cells. C) limit antigen D) proliferation. inhibit T and B cell activities. E) produce antibodies involved in autoimmunity. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells. A) NK B) plasma C) B D) helper T E) suppressor T Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) Stem cells that will form T cells develop in the A) bone marrow. B) liver. C) spleen. D) thymus. E) kidneys. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The cell that dominates the deep cortical region of a lymph node is the ________ cell. A) B B) T C) plasma D) nodule E) NK Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their A) asymmetry. B) antigen C) specificity. light-chain variable segments. D) heavy-chain constant segments. E) both C and D Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) Immunogl obulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are A) IgA. B) IgD. C) IgE. D) IgG. E) IgM. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) Immunogl obulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are A) IgA. B) IgD. C) IgE. D) IgG. E) IgM. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) Immunogl obulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may activate antibody production are A) IgA. B) IgD. C) IgE. D) IgG. E) IgM. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) Immunogl obulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are A) IgA. B) IgD. C) IgE. D) IgG. E) IgM. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) Immunogl obulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as saliva and tears are A) IgA. B) IgD. C) IgE. D) IgG. E) IgM. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in A) neutralization of the antigen. B) agglutination or precipitation. C) complement D) activation and opsonization. all of the above E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must A) be phagocytized by the lymphocyte. B) enter the C) cytoplasm of the lymphocyte. bind to the D) DNA of the lymphocyte. bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface. E) depolarize the lymphocyte. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to A) activate T cells. B) display antigen fragments. C) process D) antigens. produce E) antibodies. A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is not true? A) bind B) complement allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells C) function in D) antigen presentation fall into two E) major classes are found on all nucleated cells Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a ________ cell. A) B B) plasma C) helper T D) cytotoxic T E) NK Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following? A) all body cells B) with a nucleus red blood cells C) granulocytes D) and microphages lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells E) liver cells and macrophages in the spleen Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a ________ cell. A) plasma B) helper T C) NK D) suppressor T E) cytotoxic T Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) B cells are primarily activated by the activities of A) antigens. B) antibodies. C) helper T cells. D) macrophages. E) plasma cells. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) Helper T cells do all of the following, except A) trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production. B) provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen. C) enhance D) production of memory and cytotoxic T cells. attract and E) stimulate the activity of NK cells. enhance nonspecific defenses. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) The following are steps in the cellmediated immune response. 1. Several cycles of mitosis occur. 2. Antigen is engulfed and presented by a macrophage. 3. Cytotoxic T cells migrate to focus of infection. 4. T cells with specific receptors recognize the antigen. 5. T cells differentiate into cytotoxic T cells or T memory cells. 6. Cytotoxic T cells release perforin and/or lymphotoxin. The correct sequence for these steps is A) 4, 1, 5, 3, 6, 2. B) 2, 4, 1, 5, 3, 6. C) 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6. D) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5, 6. E) 3, 6, 4, 5, 1, 2. Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) During a primary humoral response to antigens all of the following occur, except A) B cells may B) differentiate into plasma cells immediately. B cells may C) undergo several rounds of mitosis before producing plasma cells and memory cells. antibody levels do not peak until 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure. D) neutrophils E) invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances. the first immunoglobulins to appear in circulation are of the IgM type. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 63) All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity, except that it A) depends on B) memory B cells. results in much higher antibody titers than in the primary response. C) results in much quicker rise in antibody titers. D) produces more effective antibodies. E) weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity, except that it A) depends on B) antigen triggering the appropriate B cell. requires B cell differentiation into plasma cells. C) is delayed by D) the memory cell stage. circulating E) antibodies undergo a gradual, sustained rise. peaks 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure. Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) Hormones of the immune system include all of the following, except A) interleukins. B) interferons. C) natriuretic D) factor. thymosins. E) tumor necrosis factor. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 66) Interleuki ns do all of the following, except A) increase T-cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes. B) stimulate B-cell activity, plasma cell formation, and antibody production. C) stimulate D) inflammation. elevate body E) temperature. stimulate collagen synthesis. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 67) Newborns gain their immunity initially from A) early B) immunizations. contact with C) viruses and bacteria. antibodies D) passed across the placenta from the mother. contact with E) siblings. breast milk. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 68) The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are A) IgA. B) IgD. C) IgE. D) IgG. E) IgM. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 69) Autoantib odies A) are produced by activated T cells. B) are produced C) during an allergic reaction. are directed D) against the body's own antigens. are the first step in immunological competence. E) are important in tissue rejection reactions. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 70) Inappropr iate or excessive immune responses to antigens are A) immunodeficien cy diseases. B) autoimmune C) diseases. allergies. D) the result of E) stress. signs of a weak system. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 71) Stress can affect the immune response in all of the following ways, except by A) inhibiting B) glucocorticoid release. depressing the inflammatory response. C) reducing the D) number of phagocytes. inhibiting E) interleukin secretion. increasing the level of glucocorticoids. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 72) Changes in the immune system that accompany aging include A) T cells B) becoming less responsive to antigens. fewer cytotoxic T cells responding to infections. C) decreased D) numbers of T helper cells. B cells less E) responsive. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 73) Which of the following interleukins stimulates T cells to produce IL-2, promotes inflammation, and causes fever? A) IL-1 B) IL-3 C) IL-4 D) IL-8 E) both A and D Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 74) Lymphoc ytes are produced and stored in all of the following, except A) the thymus. B) lymphoid C) nodules. lymph node D) organs. the spleen. E) the brain. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 75) Lymphati c cap...
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