25_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter25 Metabolism...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 25 Metabolism and Energetics Multiple Choice Questions 1) The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called A) glycolysis. B) oxidative C) phosphorylation. catabolism. D) anabolism. E) metabolism. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 2) Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons? A) structural B) maintenance growth and C) repair secrete D) all of the above E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 3) During glycolysis A) a molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. B) four molecules of ATP are produced. C) two molecules of ATP are consumed D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 4) Inside the mitochondrion, each pyruvic acid molecule A) forms a B) molecule of citric acid. loses a carbon atom. C) attaches to D) NAD. enters the E) electron transport system. is phosphorylated. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 5) The TCA cycle A) begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid. B) directly C) produces most of the ATP from the catabolism of glucose. consumes two moles of carbon dioxide. D) contains E) enzymes called cytochromes. forms acetylCoA from glucose-6-phosphate. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 6) The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during A) glycolysis. B) the TCA cycle. C) electron D) transport. the formation of pyruvic acid. E) the formation of water. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 7) In the electron transport chain A) NADH and B) FADH2 donate hydrogen atoms. reduced C) molecules transfer energy to ATP formation. oxidative D) phosphorylation leads to ATP formation. all of the above E) A and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 8) In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is catabolized gives a net yield of how many molecules of ATP? A) 2 B) 4 C) 30 D) 36 E) 38 Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 9) In the cellular respiration (glycolysis + oxidative), each molecule of glucose that is metabolized yields enough energy to form process of ________ molecules of ATP. A) 2 B) 4 C) 28 D) 36 E) 72 Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 10) During lipolysis A) triglycerides are converted into molecules of acetyl-CoA. B) triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. C) lipids are D) converted into glucose molecules. lipids are E) formed from excess carbohydrates. lipids are metabolized to yield ATP. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 11) All of the following are true of beta-oxidation, except that A) it occurs in the mitochondria. B) fatty acids break down into two-carbon fragments that enter the TCA cycle. C) lipids are D) converted into glycogen molecules. it requires E) coenzyme A, NAD, and FAD. it yields large amounts of ATP. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 12) Lipids A) deliver B) somewhat less energy than an equivalent mass of glucose. are difficult to store since they are not water soluble. C) yield quick D) bursts of energy. provide energy for cells with modest energy demands. E) both B and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 13) Lipogenes is generally begins with A) glucose. B) amino acids. C) fatty acids. D) acetyl-CoA. E) succinyl-CoA. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 14) Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are examples of A) transport B) proteins. lipoproteins. C) essential fatty acids. D) essential amino acids. E) vitamins. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 15) The largest lipoproteins, ranging in diameter up to 0.5 µm, ________ are produced by intestinal epithelial cells from the fats in food. A) very-low- density lipoproteins (VLDLs) B) low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) C) intermediate- density lipoproteins (IDLs) D) high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) E) chylomicrons Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 16) Sometime s called "good cholesterol," ________ carry excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. A) very-low- density lipoproteins (VLDLs) B) low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) C) intermediate- density lipoproteins (IDLs) D) high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) E) very-high- density lipoproteins (VHDLs) Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 17) Removal amino group from amino acids in the first step of their catabolism requires a coenzyme derived from vitamin ________. of the A) A B) C C) B12 D) B6 E) B9 Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 18) In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is A) converted to B) ammonia. converted to C) urea. transferred to a keto acid. D) absorbed by E) water. transferred to acetyl-CoA. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 19) The conversion of ammonia into a less toxic substance produces A) ketone bodies. B) urea. C) nitrate. D) acetyl-CoA. E) water. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 20) Urea is formed in the A) liver. B) stomach. C) kidneys. D) small intestine. E) large intestine. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 21) For adults there are ________ essential amino acids. A) 2 B) 6 C) 8 D) 10 E) 20 Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 22) N compounds include A) amino acids. B) purines. C) pyrimidines. D) creatine. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 23) What percent of energy released from catabolism is lost as heat? A) 20 B) 30 C) 40 D) 50 E) 60 Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 24) During the absorptive state, A) the liver forms glycogen. B) adipocytes C) release fatty acids to the circulation. skeletal muscle breaks down glycogen. D) insulin levels are elevated. E) both A and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 25) All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state, except that A) glycogenolysis occurs in the liver. B) levels of blood glucose are elevated. C) ketone bodies may be formed. D) fat mobilization occurs. E) gluconeogenesi s occurs in the liver. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 26) During starvation A) carbohydrate B) utilization increases. gluconeogenesi s accelerates. C) there is a D) decline in circulating ketone bodies. muscle proteins are used as an energy source. E) both B and D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 27) A balanced diet should A) include B) adequate substrates for the production of energy. provide C) essential amino acids and fatty acids. contain D) adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals. all of the above E) B and C only Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 28) Nitrogen compounds of the body include all of the following, except A) amino acids. B) oxaloacetic C) acid. creatine. D) porphyrin. E) purines. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 29) The nutrients that yield the most energy per gram when metabolized are A) carbohydrates. B) proteins. C) fats. D) nucleic acids. E) vitamins. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 30) The major cation in extracellular fluid is A) sodium. B) potassium. C) calcium. D) magnesium. E) iron. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 31) The major cation in cytoplasm is A) sodium. B) potassium. C) calcium. D) magnesium. E) iron. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 32) The major anion in body fluids is A) chloride. B) bicarbonate. C) sulfate. D) iodide. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 33) A cation that is essential for muscle contraction, nerve function, and blood clotting is A) sodium. B) potassium. C) calcium. D) magnesium. E) selenium. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 34) An ion that is a necessary component of high-energy compounds and nucleic acids and a structural component of bone is the ________ ion. A) chloride B) sulfate C) phosphate D) bicarbonate E) iodide Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 35) A cation that often actsas a cofactor for enzymes is A) sodium. B) potassium. C) calcium. D) magnesium. E) zinc. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 36) An element that is a component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes is A) calcium. B) magnesium. C) iron. D) zinc. E) cobalt. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 37) The element that is necessary for the proper function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase is A) iron. B) cobalt. C) zinc. D) selenium. E) iodine. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 38) The trace element needed for hemoglobin synthesis is A) zinc. B) copper. C) cobalt. D) iodine. E) silicon. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 39) The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments is vitamin A) A. B) B. C) C. D) D. E) E. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 40) The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is vitamin A) A. B) B. C) C. D) D. E) E. Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 41) The vitamin that prevents breakdown of vitamin A and fatty acids is vitamin A) A. B) B. C) C. D) D. E) E. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 42) The vitamin that is essential for the production of several clotting factors is vitamin A) A. B) B. C) E. D) C. E) K. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 43) The vitamin whose deficiency causes beriberi is A) thiamine. B) riboflavin. C) niacin. D) folic acid E) (folate). cobalamin. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 44) The vitamin that is part of the coenzymes FAD and FMN is A) thiamine. B) riboflavin. C) niacin. D) folic acid E) (folate). cobalamin. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 45) The vitamin that is part of the coenzyme NAD is A) thiamine. B) riboflavin. C) niacin. D) folic acid E) (folate). cobalamin. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 46) A vitamin obtained from meat that is a coenzyme in amino acid and lipid metabolism is A) pyridoxine B) (B6). pantothenic C) acid. riboflavin. D) folic acid E) (folate). niacin. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 47) The vitamin that is a constituent of coenzyme A is A) folic acid B) (folate). pantothenic C) acid. pyridoxine D) (B6). riboflavin. E) niacin. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 48) The vitamin that is a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism is A) pantothenic B) acid. pyridoxine C) (B6). folic acid D) (folate). vitamin C. E) vitamin K. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 49) Factors that influence an individual's BMR (basal metabolic rate) include all of the following, except A) physical B) exertion. age. C) body weight. D) genetics. E) gender. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 50) A T4 assay is used to A) determine the number of calories in food. B) directly C) measure the basal metabolic rate. obtain an index of metabolic activity. D) monitor the E) energy efficiency of metabolism. determine the amount of oxygen consumed during metabolism. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 51) When the temperature of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus exceeds its thermostat setting, A) peripheral B) vasoconstriction occurs. skin blood flow increases. C) tidal volume D) increases. sweat glands E) are inhibited. both B and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 52) All of the occur when the temperature of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus drops below its thermostat setting, except that following A) blood flow to the skin increases. B) shivering C) thermogenesis occurs. nonshivering D) thermogenesis occurs. epinephrine E) levels rise. blood returning from limbs is shunted to deep veins. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 53) The loss of infrared energy from the body is called A) radiation. B) conduction. C) convection. D) evaporation. E) thermal regulation. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 54) More than half the heat is lost from the body indoors through the process of A) radiation. B) conduction. C) convection. D) evaporation. E) concentration. Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 55) Reactions within ________ provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell. A) cytoplasm B) the plasma C) membrane the D) mitochondria the endoplasmic reticulum E) none of the above Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 56) Cells perform catabolism to generate ATP, which can be used for A) muscle B) contraction. ion transport. C) protein D) synthesis. glycogen E) synthesis. all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 57) Cells must synthesize new organic compounds A) to support B) growth. to perform C) structural maintenance or repairs. to produce D) secretions. to store nutrient reserves. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 58) In order for glycolysis to proceed, which of the following need not be present? A) glucose B) acetyl-CoA C) ATP D) NAD E) ADP Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 59) The of the mitochondrion contains large-diameter pores that are permeable to ions and small organic molecules such as pyruvic ________ acid. A) inner membrane B) plasma C) membrane outer membrane D) matrix E) cristae Answer: C Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 60) The function of the TCA cycle is to A) remove B) hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes. transfer the C) acetyl group. hydrolyze D) glucose. produce carbon dioxide. E) produce water. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 61) In the ETS, ________ accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another. A) a hydrogen ion B) a coenzyme C) the acetyl group D) a cytochrome E) B or D Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 62) Each cytochrome contains A) a protein. B) a pigment. C) a coenzyme. D) both A and B E) both A and C Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 63) A malfunction of the thermoregulatory mechanisms caused by fluid loss in sweat is known as A) thermoneogenes is. B) heat exhaustion. C) hydrosis. D) afebrile E) reaction. dehydration reaction. Answer: B Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 64) A high uric acid level (above 7.4 mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as A) gout. B) rheumatoid C) arthritis. anorexia D) nervosa. lupus. E) none of the above Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 65) The strategy of eating starchy foods for several days before an athletic event is known as A) carbohydrate B) craving. the Atkins diet. C) carbohydrate D) loading. glycolysis E) reaction. overeating. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 66) The presence of ketone bodies in the urine is known as A) polyuria. B) hematuria. C) ketonuria. D) uremia. E) ketosis. Answer: C Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 67) Obesity is defined as a body weight more than ________ percent above the ideal body weight for an individual. A) 5 B) 10 C) 15 D) 20 E) 30 Answer: D Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 68) A disorder caused by the ingestion of excessive quantities of a fat-soluble vitamin is known as A) protein B) deficiency disease. Kwashiorkor. C) avitaminosis. D) carbohydrate loading. E) hypervitaminosi s. Answer: E Diff: 1 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 69) Although other nutrients can feed into the TCA cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest. A) glycogen B) glucose C) protein D) fat E) both C and D Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 70) In the human body, cholesterol is important because it A) helps B) waterproof the epidermis. is a lipid C) component of all cell membranes. is a key D) constituent of bile. is the precursor of several steroid hormones and vitamin D3. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 71) In order to determine the LDL level in a patient's blood it is necessary to measure A) total cholesterol level. B) HDL level. C) triglyceride D) level. A, B, and C E) A and B only Answer: D Diff: 3 Skill: Level 3 Questions: Critical Thinking & Clinical Applications 72) Someone with a total cholesterol level between 200 and 239 mg/dl should A) modify their B) diet. lose weight if overweight. C) have annual D) checkups. not worry if E) they are physically active. A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 73) Liver is to ________ as adipose tissue is to ________. A) focal point of metabolic regulation and control; storage of lipids B) storage of C) vitamin C; source of leptin cholesterol; D) triglycerides both A and B E) both A and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 74) Glucocort icoids have which of the following effects on general peripheral tissues? A) They decrease the use of glucose. B) They increase gluconeogenesis. C) They increase glycogenolysis. D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Answer: E Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 75) Which of the following complements the actions of glucocorticoids? A) insulin B) growth C) hormone glucagon D) epinephrine E) androgens Answer: B Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 76) The essential fatty acids are A) linoleic acid B) and linolenic acid. leucine and C) lysine. cholesterol and glycerol. D) HDLs and E) LDLs. both A and D Answer: A Diff: 1 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 77) The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream are the A) HDLs. B) VLDLs. C) LDLs. D) chylomicrons. E) none of the above Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 78) When the body is relying on internal energy reserves to continue meeting its energy demands, it is in the A) postabsorptive state. B) absorptive state. C) starvation state. D) deprivation E) state. preabsorptive state. Answer: A Diff: 2 Skill: Level 1 Questions: Reviewing Facts and Terms 79) The major steps in oxidative phosphorylation include all of the following, except A) removal of B) hydrogen atoms from a substrate molecule by coenzymes. ionization of C) hydrogen atoms. increasing the energy level of electrons passing through the electron transport chain. D) the breaking of carbon-carbon covalent bonds. E) the acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms. Answer: D Diff: 2 Skill: Level 2 Questions: Reviewing Concepts 80) In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from A) the splitting of oxygen molecules. B) the breaki...
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