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Unformatted text preview: Civil Liberties Individual rights protected by the Constitution against the powers of government The Bill of Rights Content of the Bill of Rights 1 st 4 th 5 th 6 th 8 th 9 th 10 th Incorporation of the Bill of Rights 14 th Amendment The 1 st Amendment expression, speech press & assembly Schenck v US (1919) Clear and Present Danger Test Dennis v. US (1951) Bad Tendency (Gravity and Probability) Test Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) Incitement Test Prior restraint (gags) Obscenity Libel Symbolic speech 1 st Amendment Religion Free Exercise Clause Belief vs. action Establishment Clause Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) Lemon Test Secular purpose Neutral Avoid entanglement Prayer in schools Religious observance in public places Rights within the criminal justice system Due Process Legal guilt Presumption of innocence 4 th Amendment Warrant requirement Reasonableness requirement Probable cause requirement...
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