Week 8 Notes - Visual World.docx.pdf - TEXTBOOK NOTES 8:...

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TEXTBOOK NOTES 8:Seeing:Learning ObjectivesoIdentify the key structures of the eye and the role they play in vision.oSummarize how the eye and the visual cortex work together to sense and perceive the visual stimuliin the environment, including processing colours, shape, depth, and motionElectromagnetic energy: pulses of energy waves that can carry information from place to placeoWe can only see the visible spectrum (400 to 700 billionths of a meter)Wavelength: the distance between one wave peak and the next wave peakCorneapupillensretinaCornea, a clear covering that protects the eye and begins to focus the incoming lightPupil, a small opening in the centre of the eyeIris, the coloured part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil by constricting or dilating in response tolight intensityoComplete adaptation to the dark may take up to 20 minutesLens, a structure that focuses the incoming light on the retinaRetina, the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains photoreceptor cellsVisual accommodation: the process of changing the curvature of the lens to keep the light entering the eyefocused on the retina.oRays from the top of the image strike the bottom of the retina and vice versa, and rays from the leftside of the image strike the right part of the retina and vice versa, causing the image on the retinato be upside down and backward.oThe image projected on the retina is flat, and yet our final perception of the image will be threedimensional.oNearsighted: focus is in front of the retinaoFarsighted: focus is behind the retinaLightreceptor cells (rods and cones)bipolar cellsganglion cellsoptic nerveOptic nerve: a collection of millions of ganglion neurons that sends vast amounts of visual information, viathe thalamus, to the brainRods: black, white, and gray colors; peripheral visionCones: fine detail and colors; located in fovea (central point of retina)Margaret Livingstone: Because Leonardo da Vinci painted the smile in low-detail brush strokes, details arebetter perceived by our peripheral vision (the rods) than by the conesoFound that people rated the Mona Lisa as more cheerful when they were instructed to focus on hereyes than they did when they were asked to look directly at her mouthVisual informationretinathalamusvisual cortexAdaptational advantage in case of losing one eyeoLeft and right eyes each send information to both the left and the right hemisphereBlind spot: place where the optic nerve leaves the retinaoEyes are constantly moving, and one eye makes up for what the other eye missesPerception created in part due to feature detector neuronsoSpecialized neurons, located in the visual cortex, that respond to the strength, angles, shapes,edges, and movements of a visual stimulusoThe feature detectors work in parallel, each performing a specialized functionoThe Necker cube is an example of how the visual system creates perceptions out of sensations. We

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Term
Winter
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Photoreceptor cell

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