History 1807 - Week 4.docx - WEE K History 1807 DEFINITIONS...

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DEFINITIONSVOC:the first recorded joint stock company and the first publicly listed company topay regular dividendschanges leading away from the medieval era-13thcentury-Better roads, canals, and ships (longer distance trade)-Agricultural gains-International economic relations (trade centers sought to protect their traderselsewhere)-Increased presence and sophistication of financial, banking, and exchangetools-Standardization (ex: standard value for coinage, quality, quantity, basic rulesof trade)Population and economic gains-Less war (relatively smaller, less casualties due to sophistication)-Plague (more biological resistance, less mortality)-Uneven population growth-Urban gains were most significant-Trade and coinage growthDrivers of urbanization-Continuing migration from rural areas (ex: enclosure)-Growth in economic roles (ex: trade, finance, artisanal production)-More efficient and larger scale economies (had both skilled and low-costlabour)-Urban market leads to a shift in rural activities and agriculture (ex: morecommercialized)-Urban centers were consuming more products (ex: increased demand for cod)Markets-Means of distributing scarce resources-Allowed individuals to buy and sell goods at demand-driven rather thancustomary ratesWEEKHistory 1807
-Lessened the role of the state and land-based customs-Created order and new roles (ex: merchant class, labour class)-Increase in individualism-Emphasis on profit and acquisitionChanges leading away from medieval era-Markets-Growing profit ethos (incentives for innovation)-Class relations (commodification of labour)-Less manors (lords looking to change land usage)-Early agrarian capitalismAgricultural enclosures-Innovation that led to an increase in productivity-More developed market economy-More private property-Title and ownership was no longer solely through the crown or state-Enclosure Movemento1460 CEoPlaced communal lands (open fields) under single managementoAided by population declineoExtinguished communal rights to former common fieldsoSegregated the commonsoConverted waste lands into new productive acreageAccessing Enclosure – new husbandry revolution-Larger parcels enhanced economies of sale-Better crop return (result of broader crop rotation)-Permits increased specialization (ex: linen, oils, seeds)-Increased productivityThe emergence of counting-Recording and calculating numbers was cumbersome in earlier forms (ex:Roman numerals)-1200 BPthe first and more efficient use of numbers is seen (known asArabic numerals)-Developed by the Hindus in India-Included most elements of modern mathematical notation-Linked to the development of double-entry bookkeeping
Printing-Latitude was determined by measuring the altitude of stars and comparingthat position to standard charts (could not yet determine longitude)-Printing was cheaper and more readily available-Moveable print (fostered the spread of religious materials, encouragedlearning)Summarizing economic research-

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Term
Fall
Professor
jeffreyvacante
Tags
Dutch East India Company

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