Exp. 9 - Properties of Ionic and Covalent Bonds -...

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Experiment 9_ Page 1Experiment 9Properties of Ionic and Covalent BondsIntroductionA chemical bond can be defined as forces that hold groups of atoms together and allow them to function as aunit. The bond is caused by the electromagnetic force between opposite charges, electrons and nuclei. Thestrength of a chemical bond can vary considerably. The strength (energy) of the force holding oppositelycharged particles together in any material is described by Coulomb’s Law:According to this law, the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged species is directly proportionalto the magnitude of the charge on the particles (q1and q2) and inversely proportional to the square of thedistance between the two particles (r). All chemical attractive forces involve opposite charges, such as thosebetween protons in a nucleus and the electrons surrounding that nucleus, and between positive and negativeions. The type and strength of these attractive forces allow us to categorize the different types of bonding foundin matterionic, pure covalent, and polar covalent.Types of Chemical BondsIonic BondsIonic bond, also known as electrovalent bond, is a type of bond formed from the electrostatic attraction betweenoppositely chargedionsin a chemical compound (cation + anion). These kinds of bonds occur mainly betweena metal and a non-metal. Non-metals have a stronger affinity electrons and are thus typically the negative ionanion. Metals more readily give up their valence electrons and are thus typically the positive ion-cation. Thesetwo opposite ions attract each other and form the ionic bond.Covalent BondCovalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons by nuclei. The electronegativity difference between the bondedatoms is small or nonexistent. Covalent bonds typically occur between non-metallic atoms. A pure covalentbond is formed between two non-metalsthat have similarelectronegativities. Having similarelectronegativities, the atoms share the electrons in the bond equally. Apolar covalent bondis a covalent bondin which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongly (has a higherelectronegativity) than the other atom. This unequal sharing results in a partial ionic character. The moreelectronegative atomregion has a partial negative (δ-) nature and the less electronegative atom has a partialpositive nature (δ+).ABCFigure 1.A) Pure covalent molecule F-FB) Polar covalent molecule Hδ+-Fδ-C) Ionic solid.
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Experiment 9_ Page 2Properties of Ionic and Covalent CompoundsThe general properties of ionic and covalent compounds differ greatly and can be seen in table 1. The atoms ofcovalent materials are bound tightly to each other in stable molecules, but those molecules are generally notvery strongly attracted to other molecules in the material. On the other hand, the atoms (ions) in ionic materialsshow strong attractions to other ions in their vicinity. This generally leads to low melting points for covalent

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Term
Fall
Professor
Wassim
Tags
Atom, Covalent Bonds, Chemical bond, polar covalent molecule
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The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Chapter R / Exercise 72
Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
Zumdahl
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