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Genetics Study Guide (Midterm 2)

Genetics Study Guide (Midterm 2) - Genetics Study Guide...

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Genetics Study Guide Chapter 7 and 8 Polygenic Trait o Caused by more than one gene, but the individual inputs are not necessarily equal. Additive Alleles o Variations of genes that give their input to cause polygenic traits. Multifactorial Trait o Influenced by the environment o Also called complex traits Continuous Distribution o Tendency for the continuous variation of a polygenic trait to be similar for all traits. o Bell curve Degree of Relationship o Designation of primary, secondary, or tertiary relatives. o Primary Sibling to sibling Parent to child o Secondary Uncle/aunt to niece/nephew Grandparent to grandchild o Tertiary First cousin to first cousin Recurrence Risk Assessment o 3 types Closeness of case in family Number of cases in family Severity of cases Genetic Liability Liability Threshold Gene-environment Interaction Adoption Studies o Studies done on individuals who are adopted by biological relatives and those with no biological relation to their adoptive parents. Twin Studies o Used to separate the genetic from environmental contribution to a phenotype o Concordance % of pairs in which both twins express a particular trait Heritability o Estimates the proportion of the phenotypic variation for a particular trait that is due to genes in a certain population @ a certain time.
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o Focuses on the genetic component of a trait Association Studies o Researches compare SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) patterns between a group of individuals who have a particular disorder & a group who do not. Genome-Wide Scanning o SNP analysis Sib Pair Analysis o Researchers scan genomes for markers that most siblings who have the same condition share, but that siblings who don’t have the condition don’t often share. Chapter 9 Deoxyribonucleic Acid o Nucleotide Single building block of DNA Consists of one deoxyribose sugar, one phosphate group (phosphorous atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms), and one nitrogenous base. o Sugar o Phosphate o Base Adenine Cytosine Guanine Thymine Phosphodiester bond Hydrogen bond o 2 link adenine and thymine o 3 link cytosine and guanine 5’ 3’ elongation Complementary Base Pairs o A T o C G Antiparallel Strands o Strands are oriented in opposing directions. o One end is 5’ 3’ where the other is 3’ 5’ Semiconservative Replication o Each new DNA molecule conserves half of the original double helix Replication Bubble and Fork o Replication fork The site where DNA is locally opened, resembling a fork o Replication bubble o Helicase
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