Communication_125_Midterm_Study_Guide-ANSWERS -...

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Communication 125 Midterm Study Guide Know these concepts and their relation to each other. You should ultimately be able to connect explanations of media behavior, the effects of media content on audiences, and ways to test potential effects. Understand the pros/cons and arguments/counter- arguments relevant to each concept at hand. Views of media behavior The market view Pros: Cons: Corporate interest view Pros: Cons: Propaganda view Pros: Cons: Research methods Lab experiment (most popular) One group of people watch/listen/read a certain type of media fare while another group receives innocuous content and changes between both groups are measured Measurement tools: self-reports, preference analyzers, direct observation of subject's actions, psychological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, skin temp), and cognitive measures (alpha and beta brain waves) as subject is viewing content Can sometimes include control groups—people who don't receive any media messages Pros Best research method for establishing causality Gives the researcher more control in the presentation of variables to ensure that cause precedes effect and in the manipulation of variables Less costly than other methods Step by step techniques make lab experiments easier to replicate than other research methods
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Cons The artificial nature of experiments may affect a participant's behavior Experimental bias-when researcher influences the results either intentionally or unintentionally How to avoid biasness-conducting double blind experiments where neither research participants nor researchers know which participants are in the control group and which belong to the experimental group Field experiment ethnographic studies; not as common lab experiments/surveys Pros: Use of statistical controls in the field allow researchers to gain more control over intervening/extraneous variables; attitudes/behaviors of participants are measured in real life settings (and usually people being studied in the field don't know they are being studied) and thusn results are more natural; expedient when studying complex social issues Cons: Don't allow as much physical control as experiments conducted in laboratories; possible ethical issues Quasi-experiment An attempt to uncover a causal relationship, even though the researcher cannot control all the factors that might affect the outcome. Often uses non-randomized groups and lacks control groups— incorporates interpretation in order to mitigate this Survey Tests exposure and attitudes; 1. the type and extent of media exposure of an individual; 2. respondent's self-reported attitudes and tendencies toward anti-social/prosocial behaviors Measurement tools: written questionnaires, telephone/in person interviews, web surveys Pros: Good at determining associations or relationships between variables; useful when trying to pinpoint certain demographic or
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Communication_125_Midterm_Study_Guide-ANSWERS -...

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