EXAM NOTES - KINESIOL 1A03 - Anatomy and Physiology I.pdf -...

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FINAL EXAM NOTESKINESIOL 1A03 - Anatomy and Physiology IUnit 1Overview of Anatomy and PhysiologyBody Parts and RegionsSerous MembranesVisceral serous membrane - innerParietal serous membrane - outerPericardium - around heartPleura - sound lungsPeritoneum - around organs of abdominal cavityPeritoneal fold - double membrane connecting one organ toanotherMesenteries - connect small intestines to each otherRetroperitoneal organs - outside/behind serous membranesHomeostasisSet point - ideal normal value and can fluctuate within normal rangeFeedback systems1.Stimulus2.Receptors - monitor value of some variable3.Control center4.Effector5.ResponseNegative Feedback - any change from set point made smallerPositive Feedback - response makes greater change (e.g. giving birth)Normal range can change during exercise but still homeostaticEmbryology and DevelopmentAmpulla - site of fertilizationOvary - location of gametesOvulation - mature sex cells from ovary → ampulla region of fallopian tubesWhat helps with movement of the sperm?
self-propelled byflagellauterus contractto move the sperm towards the ampullaCaused byoxytocin(released during intercourse) as well asprostaglandins(support sperm)mature egg or oocyte will only survive for ~24 hoursPrenatal Development1.Germinal period: (first 2 weeks of development) during formation ofprimitive germ layers2.Embryonic period: (week 2 - 8) organ systems develop, now an embryo3.Fetal period: (week 9-birth) organ systems grow and mature to fetusFertilizationDuring meiosis gamete divides into oocyte and polar bodyUltimate goal: combine the genetic material from thehead of the spermwith thegenetic material found within theoocyte nucleus1.Sperm passes through corona radiata and zona pellucida to reachoocyteZona pellucida has ZP3 glycoprotein - sperm receptors (onlyhuman)2.Acrosome of sperm binds to receptor → Acrosomal reaction → digestionof zona pellucidaNeed multiple sperm to break down ZP3.Sperm bind to integrin a6B1 → depolarization (fast block to polyspermy)4.Female nucleus second meiotic division → ovary & 2nd polar body,nowpronucleus5.Sperm head detach from body6.Both join → zygote7.1st division - largest (within 24 hour - duration 6-36h), multiple divisionsafterTotipotent8.Morula (day 5) - same size as zona pellucidapluripotent9.Blastocyst (day 6) - fluids pushed to the side → fluid filled cavity and cellspushed as single layer around
Factors that prevent multiple sperm entering oocyteFast block to polyspermy - depolarizationSlow block to polyspermy - release of Ca2+ causes exocytosis of H2O →zona pellucida and ZP3 denatureImplantation and Formation of Placenta8-12 daysBlastocyst attaches to uterine cavity, trophoblast cell → cytotrophoblast andsyncytiotrophoblast cellsCytotrophoblast cells - separate embryo proper and maternal bloodsupplySyncytiotrophoblast cells - multinucleated cell invades endometriumrelease chorionic gonadotropin in maternal blood - maintainthicken wall

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Term
Spring
Professor
Parise&MacDonald
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