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FINAL EXAM NOTESKINESIOL 1A03 - Anatomy and Physiology IUnit 1Overview of Anatomy and Physiology❏Body Parts and Regions❏Serous Membranes●Visceral serous membrane - inner●Parietal serous membrane - outer●Pericardium - around heart●Pleura - sound lungs●Peritoneum - around organs of abdominal cavity○Peritoneal fold - double membrane connecting one organ toanother○Mesenteries - connect small intestines to each other●Retroperitoneal organs - outside/behind serous membranesHomeostasis❏Set point - ideal normal value and can ﬂuctuate within normal range❏Feedback systems1.Stimulus2.Receptors - monitor value of some variable3.Control center4.Effector5.Response❏Negative Feedback - any change from set point made smaller❏Positive Feedback - response makes greater change (e.g. giving birth)❏Normal range can change during exercise but still homeostaticEmbryology and Development❏Ampulla - site of fertilization❏Ovary - location of gametes❏Ovulation - mature sex cells from ovary → ampulla region of fallopian tubes❏What helps with movement of the sperm?
●self-propelled byﬂagella●uterus contractto move the sperm towards the ampulla○Caused byoxytocin(released during intercourse) as well asprostaglandins(support sperm)❏mature egg or oocyte will only survive for ~24 hours❏Prenatal Development1.Germinal period: (first 2 weeks of development) during formation ofprimitive germ layers2.Embryonic period: (week 2 - 8) organ systems develop, now an embryo3.Fetal period: (week 9-birth) organ systems grow and mature to fetus❏Fertilization●During meiosis gamete divides into oocyte and polar bodyUltimate goal: combine the genetic material from thehead of the spermwith thegenetic material found within theoocyte nucleus1.Sperm passes through corona radiata and zona pellucida to reachoocyte●Zona pellucida has ZP3 glycoprotein - sperm receptors (onlyhuman)2.Acrosome of sperm binds to receptor → Acrosomal reaction → digestionof zona pellucida●Need multiple sperm to break down ZP3.Sperm bind to integrin a6B1 → depolarization (fast block to polyspermy)4.Female nucleus second meiotic division → ovary & 2nd polar body,nowpronucleus5.Sperm head detach from body6.Both join → zygote7.1st division - largest (within 24 hour - duration 6-36h), multiple divisionsafter●Totipotent8.Morula (day 5) - same size as zona pellucida●pluripotent9.Blastocyst (day 6) - ﬂuids pushed to the side → ﬂuid filled cavity and cellspushed as single layer around
❏Factors that prevent multiple sperm entering oocyte●Fast block to polyspermy - depolarization●Slow block to polyspermy - release of Ca2+ causes exocytosis of H2O →zona pellucida and ZP3 denature❏Implantation and Formation of Placenta8-12 daysBlastocyst attaches to uterine cavity, trophoblast cell → cytotrophoblast andsyncytiotrophoblast cells●Cytotrophoblast cells - separate embryo proper and maternal bloodsupply●Syncytiotrophoblast cells - multinucleated cell invades endometrium○release chorionic gonadotropin in maternal blood - maintainthicken wall