Lecture Series 8

Lecture Series 8 - Translation How is the information in a...

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Translation
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How is the information in a linear sequence of nucleotides in RNA translated into the linear sequence of a chemically-different set of subunits – the amino acids in a protein? The rules by which the nucleotide sequence of a gene, through the medium of mRNA, is translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein are known as the genetic code . How are the nucleotides able to code for the 20 different amino acids? Each group of three consecutive nucleotides in RNA is called a codon , and each specifies one amino acid.
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tRNA works with ribosome and mRNA to produce proteins Structually similar and called adaptor moleculs because they recognize and bind both to the codon and to an amino acid. Each anticodon of a tRNA is complementary to one or more mRNA codons. (due to 3 rd site wobble) Selection of a correct amino acid for each tRNA is dependent on the tRNA aminoacyl synthase.
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Each tRNA is about 80 nucleotides long and has 3 loop regions. The molecule folds into an elaborate upside down L shape with the anticodon at one end and the attached amino acid at the other. These two regions are essential for its function.
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Aminoacyl tRNA Synthase creates an ester bond linkage between the amino acid and the tRNA. This creates a charged tRNA. ATP is hydrolyzed to AMP to create this high energy bond. This binding process is called amino acid activation.
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Recognition and attachment of the correct amino acid depends on the aminoacyl- tRNA synthetases. There are different synthetases enzymes
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Lecture Series 8 - Translation How is the information in a...

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