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assessment.docx - International Encyclopedia of Education...

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International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition)2010, Pages 209-219Classroom Assessment Tasks and TestsAuthor links open overlay panelJ.PhelanJ.PhelanGet rights and contentClassroom assessment is the process of observing, collecting, analyzing, and interpreting evidence thatcan be used to draw inferences and inform decision making. Effective classroom assessment requiresthat teachers have a clear and complete understanding of the learning goals, have tasks that will allowthem to see if these goals are being met, and finally, have the ability to interpret the evidence collectedfrom these observations. We briefly describe two broad categories of assessment and then discuss somedifferent types of classroom assessment, how they are designed, and the types of evidence andinferences we can expect to get from them.Classroom assessmentFormative assessmentPaper-and-pencil testsPerformance assessmentPortfolioassessmentRubricsScoringSummative assessmentValidityClassroom assessment is something all teachers do as part of their responsibility for enhancing studentlearning and motivation, documenting student performance, and reporting results for accountabilitypurposesTable of ContentsHomeTypes of Classroom AssessmentPurpose of Classroom AssessmentThe Assessment ProcessAssessment Strategies and Tools
BibliographyTypes of Classroom AssessmentMaking assessment an integral part of daily mathematics instruction is a challenge. It requires planningspecific ways to use assignments and discussions to discover what students do and do not understand. Italso requires teachers to be prepared to deal with students' responses. Merely spotting when studentsare incorrect is relatively easy compared with understanding the reasons behind their errors. The latterdemands careful attention and a deep knowledge of the mathematics concepts and principles thatstudents are learning… The insights we gain by making assessment a regular part of instruction enable usto meet the needs of the students who are eager for more challenges and to provide intervention forthose who are struggling.Burns 2005, p. 31Assessment is integral to the teaching–learning process, facilitating student learning and improvinginstruction, and can take a variety of forms. Classroom assessment is generally divided into three types:assessment for learning, assessment of learning and assessment as learning.The key ideas guiding this vision come directly from learning sciences research and the researchliteratures on motivation and assessment. They explain how classroom assessment can bestbe enacted to support teaching and learning. To ensure that the document remains maximallyreadable and useful, the text is not interrupted by academic citations; references listed at the
end provide the research evidence that supports these claims.

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