ch13 - Exam N ame 1 The spinal cord is part of the A...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam N ame___________________________________ 1) The spinal cord is part of the A) autonomic nervous system. B) peripheral nervous system. C) somatic nervous system. D) central nervous system. E) afferent nervous system. 1) 2) T he ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament. A) ventral root B) filum terminale C) conus med ullaris D) cauda equina E) dorsal root 2) 3) Spinal nerves are A) purely sensory. B) both sensory and motor. C) interneuronal. D) involuntary. E) purely motor. 3) 4) T he spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments. A) 25 B) 5 C) 31 D) 12 E) T he number varies w idely among indi viduals. 4) 5) T he dorsal root ganglia mainly contain A) axons of motor neurons. B) synapses. C) cell bodies of sensory neurons. D) cell bodies of motor neurons. E) axons of sensory neurons. 5) 6) T he dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains A) axons of sensory neurons. B) cell bodies of motor neurons. C) cell bodies of sensory neurons. D) axons of motor neurons. E) interneurons. 6) 1 7) T he ventral root of a spinal nerve contains A) axons of motor neurons. B) interneurons. C) cell bodies of sensory neurons. D) axons of sensory neurons. E) cell bodies of motor neurons. 7) 8) The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the A) pia mater. B) epid ural block. C) arachnoid. D) dura mater. E) periosteu m. 8) 9) A fter age ________ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not. A) 18 B) 12 C) 1 D) 8 E) 4 9) 10) If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed, A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked. B) sensory input would be blocked. C) the brain would not be able to communicate w ith that level of the spinal cord. D) output to visceral organs would be blocked. E) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level. 10) 11) T he subdural space lies betw een A) the endosteum and the periosteum. B) the pia mater and the dura mater. C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater. D) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space. E) the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. 11) 12) The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the A) dura mater. B) choroid plexus. C) arachnoid. D) pia mater. E) subarachnoid space. 12) 13) A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a A) cervical enlargement. B) spinal meninx. C) lumbar enlargem ent. D) spinal nerve. E) spinal ganglion. 13) 14) In meningitis, A) bacteria can be the cause. B) CSF flow can be disrupted. C) viruses can be the cause. D) inflammation of the meninges occurs. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 14) 2 15) Which of the follow ing is true regarding an epidural block? A) It can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected. B) It can provide sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected. C) It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection. D) It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 15) 16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows w ithin the A) filu m terminale. B) dura mater. C) arachnoid mater. D) subarachnoid space. E) pia mater. 16) 17) T he spinal cord continues to elongate until about age A) 2 months. B) 10 years. C) 4 years. D) 6 months. E) 20 years. 17) 18) T he specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the A) epidural membranes. B) spinal mater. C) cranial meninges. D) spinal meninges. E) cranial mater. 18) 19) Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the A) subd ural space. B) epidural space. C) subarachnoid space. D) dura mater. E) pia mater. 19) 20) Samples of CSF for d iagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the A) epidural space. B) arachnoid mater. C) subarachnoid space. D) cerebral ventricles. E) dura mater. 20) 21) In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about A) L 1. B) T 10. C) T 6. 21) D) L 5. 3 E) C 1 . 22) Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. A s a result, w hich of the follow ing would you expect? A) problems with moving his arms B) uncontrollable sweating of his feet C) problems with moving his legs D) loss of sensation in his torso E) inability to breathe 22) 23) T he w hite matter of the spinal cord is mainly A) nodes of Ranvier. B) unm yelinated axons. C) myelinated and unmyelinated axons. D) neuroglia. E) Sch wann cells. 23) 24) The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly A) meninges. B) columns. C) nerve cell bodies. D) funiculi. E) nerve tracts. 24) 25) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly A) nerve tracts. B) autonomic motor nuclei. C) sympathetic n uclei. D) somatic motor nuclei. E) sensory nuclei. 25) 26) T he anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly A) somatic motor nuclei. B) autonomic motor nuclei. C) sensory nuclei. D) nerve tracts. E) sympathetic n uclei. 26) 27) N erve tracts or fasciculi make up the A) central canal. B) w hite columns. C) anterior gray horns. D) posterior gray horns. E) gray commissures. 27) 28) In the spinal cord, w hite matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as A) columns. B) horns. C) nerves. D) ganglia. E) nuclei. 28) 4 29) T he outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called A) wings. B) horns. C) tracts. D) fibers. E) p yramids. 29) 30) A xons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other w ithin the gray matter are found in the A) posterior gray horns. B) anterior gray horns. C) gray commissures. D) lateral gray horns. E) white commissures. 30) 31) The white matter of the spinal cord contains A) bundles of dendrites w ith common origins, destinations, and functions. B) both axons and dendrites. C) sensory and motor nuclei. D) interneurons. E) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions. 31) - 32) Identify the structure labeled "1." A) anterior white colu mn B) lateral w hite horn C) median commissure D) posterior w hite column E) lateral w hite column 32) 5 33) Identify the structure labeled "4." A) anterior gray horn B) posterior w hite column C) dorsal gray ganglion D) posterior gray column E) posterior gray horn 33) 34) Identify the structure labeled "10." A) anterior white colu mn B) anterior median fissure C) anterior white commissure D) anterior gray commissure E) anterior w hite horn 34) 35) What is the function of the structure labeled "12"? A) ascending pathway B) control of skeletal muscle C) visceral sensory receiving D) somatic sensory receiving E) control of visceral effectors 35) 36) What is the function of the structure labeled "14"? A) control of skeletal muscle B) somatic sensory processing C) visceral sensory processing D) somatic motor control E) control of visceral effectors 36) 37) Where do somatic motor neurons reside? A) 14 B) 15 37) C) 13 D) 12 38) W here are the w hite columns of the spinal cord? A) 7, 11 B) 8 C) 1, 2, 3 E) 10 D) 12, 13 E) 4, 5, 6 38) 39) The outermost connective- tissue covering of nerves is the A) epimysium. B) endomysium. C) perineurium. D) endoneurium. E) epineurium. 39) 40) The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve w ith an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated form the A) dorsal ramus. B) ventral ramus. C) w hite rami communicantes. D) gray rami communicantes. E) dermatomes. 40) 6 41) T he postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region w ith the spinal nerve and contain postganglionic fibers that innervate glands in the bod y wall or limbs are A) w hite rami communicantes. B) ventral ramus. C) dorsal ramus. D) gray rami communicantes. E) dermatomes. 41) 42) Postganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs do not rejoin the spinal nerve but form A) gray rami. B) w hite rami. C) ventral rami. D) dorsal rami. E) sympathetic nerves. 42) 43) W hich of the follow ing associations is A) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve B) 5 sacral spinal nerves C) 8 cervical spinal nerves D) 11 thoracic spinal nerves E) 5 lumbar spinal nerves 43) ? 44) T he ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back. A) w hite ramus communicantes B) dorsal ramus C) gray ramus communicantes D) ventral ramus E) dermatome 44) 45) M uscles of the neck an d shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region. A) lumbar B) coccygeal C) sacral D) thoracic E) cervical 45) 46) T he ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus. A) lumbar B) cervical C) brachial D) thoracic 46) E) sacral 47) In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise? A) brachial B) cranial C) sacral E) lumbar 47) D) cervical 48) In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash w hose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes. A) chickenpox B) neuronal d amage C) myasthenia gravis D) shingles E) H odgkin's disease 7 48) 49) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle w ithin a peripheral nerve is the A) epineurium. B) endosteum. C) perineurium. D) epimysium. E) endoneurium. 49) 50) Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles. A) shoulder B) abdominal C) intercostal D) facial E) leg 50) 51) T he ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs. A) ventral ramus B) dermatomes C) gray rami communicantes D) w hite rami communicantes E) dorsal ramus 51) 52) The obturator nerve is distributed to the A) skin over buttocks. B) biceps femoris. C) skin over the perineum. D) ad ductors of the hip. E) extensors of the hip. 52) 53) A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn w ill A) affect visceral motor function. B) interfere with position sense. C) lead to skeletal muscle w eakness or paralysis. D) block autonomic regulation. E) mainly interfere w ith crude touch and temperature sense. 53) 54) T he complex, inter woven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a(n) A) plexus. B) dermatome. C) autonomic nerve. D) lateral nerve. E) tract. 54) 55) Each of the follow ing nerves originates in the lumbar plexus, A) sciatic B) genitofemoral C) femoral D) saphenous E) obturator 55) 8 the ________ nerve. 56) T he ________ nerve, w hich arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm. A) lesser occipital B) sciatic C) radial D) phrenic E) ansa cervicalis 56) 57) T he layer of connective tissue that surrounds ind ividual axons w ithin a peripheral nerve is termed the A) metaneuriu m. B) aponeurium. C) perineurium. D) endoneurium. E) subneurium. 57) 58) T he ventral rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following, plexus. A) lumbar B) brachial C) cervical D) sacral 58) th e ________ E) nuchal 59) If a person has a crush injury to the C 3 - C 5 spinal segments, you would expect that he A) w ould be in a coma. B) could walk w ithout difficulty. C) might be unable to breathe on his ow n. D) would have difficulty chew ing and moving the tongue. E) w ould have full range of motion in all extremities. 59) 60) As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve. A) femoral B) brachial C) pudendal D) perineal E) sciatic 60) 61) M ary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. H er doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. W hich part of her cord is likely to be compressed? A) descending tracts B) the anterior gray commissures C) ascending tracts D) the anterior w hite commissures E) the anterior gray horns 61) 62) The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the follow ing nerves, A) phrenic. B) radial. C) ulnar. D) median. E) musculocutaneous. 62) 9 the - 63) Identify the structure labeled "2." A) white ramus B) ventral root C) ventral ramus D) spinal nerve E) dorsal ramus 63) 64) Identify the structure labeled "3." A) spinal nerve B) white ramus C) ventral ramus D) gray ramus E) dorsal ramus 64) 65) Identify the inside the structure labeled "3." A) preganglionic neuron B) somatic motor neuron C) postganglionic neuron D) sensory neuron E) interneuron 65) 66) Identify the structure labeled "4." A) spinal nerve B) ventral ramus C) gray ramus D) dorsal ramus E) white ramus 66) 10 67) Identify the structure labeled "5." A) ventral root B) autonomic nerve C) dorsal root ganglion D) rami communicantes E) autonomic ganglion 67) 68) Identify the structure labeled "6." A) rami communicantes B) dorsal root ganglion C) autonomic nerve D) sympathetic ganglion E) ventral root 68) 69) Identify the structure labeled "8." A) dorsal ramus B) dorsal root C) peripheral nerve D) ventral root E) spinal nerve 69) 70) What is the function of the structure labeled "12"? A) somatic sensory input B) visceral motor control C) visceral sensory inp ut D) somatic motor control E) sensory receptor for pain 70) 71) What is the function of the structure labeled "13"? A) somatic motor control B) visceral sensory inp ut C) visceral motor control D) somatic sensory input E) sensory receptor for pain 71) 72) Which branch carries motor neurons to structures on the A) 1 B) 5 C) 7 73) In w hich structure are sensory cell bodies located? A) 10 B) 6 C) 12 of the bod y trunk? D) 2 72) E) 11 73) D) 4 74) Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the follow ing, A) divergent. B) parallel processing. C) reverberating. D) multipolar. E) convergent. 11 E) 5 74) 75) A ll of the following are true of neural reflexes, A) cannot be modified by the brain. B) are the simplest form of behavior. C) help preserve homeostasis. D) are automatic motor responses. E) involve at least two neurons. that they 75) 76) Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes. A) acquired B) somatic C) vegetative D) visceral E) innate 76) 77) Reflexes can be classified according to all of the follow ing, A) w here information processing occurs. B) their development. C) the motor response. D) whether they are sensory or motor. E) the complexity of the neural circuit. 77) 78) A ll of the following are true of muscle spindles, that they A) are innervated by gamma motor neurons. B) are found w ithin skeletal muscle. C) are the receptor for the stretch reflex. D) consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers. E) are found in tendons. 78) 79) T he reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex. A) flexor B) reciprocal C) crossed extensor D) stretch E) tendon 79) 80) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called A) a crossed extensor reflex. B) reciprocal inhibition. C) reverberating circuits. D) a stretch reflex. E) a tendon reflex. 80) 81) T he ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles. A) stretch B) tendon C) flexor D) reciprocal E) crossed extensor 81) 12 82) T he flexor reflex A) usually depends on cranial neurons. B) moves a limb a way from a painful stimulus. C) prevents a muscle from overstretching. D) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex. E) prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension. 82) 83) In which of the follow ing would the delay between stimulus and response be A) a monosynaptic reflex B) a polysynaptic reflex 83) 84) A ll of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes, that they A) have reverberating circuits that prolong the reflexive motor response. B) involve reciprocal innervation. C) are intersegmental in distribution. D) involve pools of interneurons. E) are arranged according to dermatomes. 84) 85) Tina falls w hile climbing a tree and lands on her back. H er frightened parents take her to the emergency room, w here she is examined. H er knee - jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that A) Tina has injured one of her ascending nerve tracts. B) Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord. C) Tina has a spinal injury in the cervical region. D) Tina has a spinal injury in the lumbar region. E) Tina has injured one of her descending nerve tracts. 85) 86) W hich of the follow ing is true about a positive Babinski reflex? A) flaring of the toes w hen the sole is stroked B) normal in newborns C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts D) abnormal in adults E) why you close your eyes w hen you sneeze 86) 87) T he dura mater tapers inferiorly to form the ________. 87) 88) T he condition in w hich a person loses all feeling and movement of the arms and legs due to sp inal cord injury is termed ________. 88) 89) T he loss of feeling an d movement of the legs is termed ________. 89) 90) T he ________ separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal. 90) 91) The dorsal root contains ________ neurons. 91) 92) Blood vessels traveling w ithin the ________ space deliver oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord. 92) 13 93) D uring the procedure know n as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region. 93) 94) T he w hite ramus an d the gray ramus collectively are called the ________. 94) 95) Suppose that you feel something brushing against your abdomen. The sensory information would be carried to the spinal cord over a ________ ramus. 95) 96) T he specific strip of skin that is innervated by a specific spinal nerve is called a(n) ________. 96) 97) A complex, inter woven network of nerves is called a(n) ________. 97) 98) T he nerve crucial for breathing that originates w ithin the cervical plexus is called the ________ nerve. 98) 99) In ________, one neuron synapses on several postsynaptic neurons. 99) 100) In ________, axon collaterals extend back toward the source of the impulse and further stimulate the earlier neurons. 100) 101) T he neural " wiring" of a single reflex is called a(n) ________. 101) 102) ________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles. (Note: Be sure to capitalize the first letter of your answ er). 102) 103) T he most complicated spinal reflexes are called ________. 103) 104) Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are called ________. 104) 105) Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called ________. 105) 106) In a(n) ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron. 106) 107) A (n) ________ reflex has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neurons. 107) 108) What would happen if the dorsal root of a spinal nerve were completely transected? 109) While playing football, Ramón is tackled hard, and as he tries to get up, he finds that he has difficulty flexing and adducting his left thigh and extending his left leg. W hich nerve innervating the lower limb may be damaged, and how would the damage affect sensory perception in Ramón's left leg? 14 110) W hat is a reflex arc? W hat components must be present to qualify? 111) Sometimes, w hen it is difficult to initiate a knee- jerk reflex by tapping the patellar tendon, a patient w ill be asked to voluntarily make a fist. Then the reflex w ill be easily evoked. W hat does this illustrate about the relation between voluntary and involuntary reflex movement? 15 A nsw er K ey Testname: U N T IT L E D2 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) D B B C C A A D E B C D D E E D C D E C A D C C E A B A B C E D E D D E B C E C D E D B E C A D C E 16 A nsw er...
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