ch18 - Exam N ame 1 A ll of the following are true of the nervous system A respond specifically to stimuli B communicate by the release of

ch18 - Exam N ame 1 A ll of the following are true of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam N ame___________________________________ 1) A ll of the following are true of the nervous system, A) respond specifically to stimuli. B) communicate by the release of neurotransmitters. C) respond rapidly to stimuli. D) function independently of the endocrine system. E) respond with motor output. that it doesn't 1) 2) Endocrine cells A) release their secretions onto an epithelial surface. B) are modified connective - tissue cells. C) release their secretions directly into body fluids. D) contain few vesicles. E) are a ty pe of ner ve cell. 2) 3) ________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues. A) N eurotransmitters B) H ormones C) N europeptides D) H umoral a ntibodies E) A ntigens 3) 4) Cells can respond to ________ hormone(s) at the same time. A) an unlimited number of B) a few C) fifty D) only one 4) 5) H ormones know n as "catecholamines" are A) peptides. B) lipids. C) steroids. D) derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine. E) derivatives of reproductive glands. 5) 6) Peptide hormones are A) chemically related to cholesterol. B) produced by the suprarenal glands. C) composed of amino acids. D) lipids. E) derived from the amino acid tyrosine. 6) 1 7) A kinase is an enzyme that performs A) as a membrane channel. B) as an antibody. C) active transport. D) phosphorylation. E) protein synthesis. 7) 8) A n activated G protein can trigger A) the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane. B) the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. C) the production of diacylglycerol. D) a fall in c A MP levels. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 8) 9) Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination w ith the intracellular protein A) calcitriol. B) calcitonin. C) calcitropin. D) calcium - binding globulin. E) calmodulin. 9) 10) H ormones can operate on the ________ level of organization. A) cellular B) organismic C) organ D) tissue E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 10) 11) T he functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ________ system in many ways. A) hepatic B) body C) cardiovascular D) endocrine E) muscular 11) 12) T he hy pothalam us acts as both a neural an d a(n) ________ organ. A) endocrine B) renal C) cardiovascular D) hepatic E) muscular 12) 13) A simple endocrine reflex in volves ________ hormone(s). A) tropic B) two C) hypothalamic D) one E) gonadotropic 13) 2 14) Which of the follow ing substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a secon d messenger? A) A CT H B) insulin C) TS H D) cyclic A MP E) epinephrine 14) 15) A ll of the following are true of steroid hormones, A) are produced by the suprarenal medulla. B) are produced by reproductive glands. C) are lipids. D) are derived from cholesterol. E) bind to receptors w ithin the cell. 15) that they 16) Each of the follow ing hormones is an amino acid derivative, A) epinephrine. B) norepinephrine. C) melatonin. D) thyroid - stimulating hormone. E) thyroid hormone. 16) 17) Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the follow ing types of hormones? A) eicosanoids B) thyroid C) catecholamines D) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids E) peptide hormones 17) 18) Steroid hormones A) are transported in the blood dissolved in the plasma. B) are proteins. C) cannot diffuse through cell membranes. D) remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time. E) bin d to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells. 18) 19) When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the A) hormone is transported to the nucleus w here it alters the activity of D N A . B) cell membrane becomes depolarized. C) hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm. D) second messenger appears in the cytoplasm. E) cell becomes inactive. 19) 20) H ormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include A) peptides. B) eicosanoids. C) amino acid derivatives. D) steroids. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 20) 3 21) H ormonal actions on cells include those that affect A) synthesis of enzymes. B) activities of enzymes. C) gating of ion channels. D) quantities of enzymes. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 21) 22) The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually A) a G protein. B) cG MP. C) cA MP. D) calcium ion levels. E) adenyl cyclase. 22) 23) W hen adenyl cyclase is activated, A) cA MP is broken dow n. B) A TP is produced. C) c A M P is formed. D) A TP is consumed and cA MP is formed. E) A TP is consumed. 23) 24) A fter a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an acti ve complex, A) G proteins are phosphylated. B) cyclic nucleotides are formed. C) gene transcription is initiated. D) adenyl cyclase is activated. E) protein kinases are activated. 24) 25) T he most complex endocrine responses involve the A) thyroid gland. B) hypothalamus. C) pancreas. D) suprarenal glands. E) thy mus gland. 25) 26) H ormone release may be controlled by w hich of the follow ing factors? A) blood level of glucose B) blood level of an ion- like potassium C) nervous stimuli D) blood level of a hormone E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 26) 27) Which of the follow ing hormones is/are water soluble and therefore bind(s) to extracellular receptors? A) insulin and epinephrine B) insulin C) epinephrine D) calcitriol E) cortisol 27) 4 28) A ll target cells A) secrete hormones. B) produce their ow n hormones. C) are in the blood. D) respond to electrical signals. E) have hormone receptors. 28) 29) If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, w hich of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of gl ucose? A) cortisol B) glucagon C) insulin D) thyroxine E) leptin 29) 30) Increased acti vity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of A) testosterone. B) cA MP. C) thyroid hormone. D) progesterone. E) estrogen. 30) 31) Destruction of the su praoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have w hich result? A) loss of emotional response B) loss of G H secretion C) loss of melatonin secretion D) loss of loss of regulatory factor secretion E) loss of A D H secretion 31) 32) The pri mary fu nction of A D H is to A) delay urination. B) decrease blood pressure. C) increase digestive absorption. D) increase the amount of sodium lost at the kidneys. E) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys. 32) 33) If the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of w hich of the follow ing hormones? A) A CT H B) TSH , A C T H , PRL C) TS H D) PRL E) A D H and O XT 33) 34) Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of A) A D H. B) oxytocin. C) L H . D) A C T H. 34) 5 E) TSH . 35) The hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by A) altering ion concentrations and p H in the anterior pituitary. B) gap synaptic junctions. C) direct neural stimulation. D) indirect osmotic control. E) secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tin y portal system. 35) 36) N eurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture A) G H I H and G H R H. B) CRF and GnR H . C) FSH and PRL. D) TSH an d FS H. E) A D H and oxytocin. 36) 37) Secretory cells of the adenoh ypophysis release A) TSH . B) A C T H. C) G H. D) FS H. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 37) 38) T he hypoph yseal portal system A) carries A D H and oxytocin. B) is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary. C) carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary. D) has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 38) 39) T he main action of antidiuretic hormone is: A) increased water conservation by kidneys B) increase urine output to remove excess fluid C) stimulate kidney cells to secrete renin D) increased blood pressure by increased N a+ reabsorption E) inhibition of aldosterone 39) 40) Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause A) acromegaly. B) diabetes insipidus. C) d warfism. D) gigantism. E) rickets. 40) 41) W hich of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if h ypersecreted after closure of the epip hyseal plates? A) insulin B) growth hormone C) parathyroid hormone D) epinephrine E) cortisol 41) 6 42) W hich of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin? A) mammary glands B) ductus deferens C) prostate D) uterus E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 43) T he posterior pituitary gland secretes A) TSH . B) A D H. 42) 43) C) MSH . D) FS H. E) A C T H. 44) The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is A) FS H. B) MSH . C) A C T H. D) A D H. E) TSH . 44) 45) Each of the follow ing hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypoph ysis, A) TSH . B) corticotropin. C) oxytocin. D) FS H. E) somatotropin. 45) 46) The hormone oxytocin A) triggers prostate gland contraction. B) is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands. C) is produced in the hypothalamus. D) promotes uterine contractions. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 46) 47) Growth hormone does all of the following, that it A) promotes bone growth. B) promotes amino acid uptake by cells. C) promotes muscle growth. D) causes fat accumulation w ithin adipocytes. E) is glucose sparing. 47) 48) Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called A) prostaglandins. B) gonadotrophins. C) glucocorticoids. D) somatomedins. E) hepatic hormones. 48) 49) The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the th yroid gland is A) TSH . B) FS H. C) A C T H. D) G H. E) L H . 49) 50) The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is A) L H . B) TSH . C) A C T H. D) FS H. E) G H. 50) 51) T he pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is A) L H . B) TSH . C) FS H. D) A C T H. E) G H. 51) 7 52) The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is A) A C T H. B) FS H. C) G H. D) TSH . E) L H . 52) 53) The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is A) TSH . B) FS H. C) A C T H. D) prolactin. E) growth hormone. 53) 54) T he pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is A) prolactin. B) A C T H. C) somatotropin. D) insulin. E) MSH . 54) 55) The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce w ater loss is A) A D H. B) FS H. C) TSH . D) ST H . 55) E) MSH . 56) A fter brain surgery, a patient recei ving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The IC U nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the follow ing hormones. W hich one? A) epinephrine B) cortisol C) renin D) A D H E) aldosterone 56) 57) The term used to describe excess production of urine is A) hematuria. B) glycosuria. C) polyuria. D) diabetes insipidis E) polydipsia. 57) 58) M elanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH ) is secreted by the human pars intermedia A) during fetal development. B) in very young children. C) during pregnancy. D) in some disease processes. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 58) 59) The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones? A) 5 B) 7 C) 9 D) 3 8 59) E) 16 60) PRL is to ________ as A C T H is to ________. A) prolactin; corticotropin C) oxytocin; mammotropin 60) B) gonadotropin; mammotropin D) oxytocin; cortisol 61) The hormone that may be slo wly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is A) just extra fluids. B) prolactin. C) both oxytocin and luteinizing hormone. D) luteinizing hormone. E) oxytocin. 61) - 62) Identify the hormone labeled "4." A) thyroid - stimulating hormone B) th yrotropin C) thyroxin D) calcitonin E) thyroid - releasing hormone 62) 9 63) Identify the hormone labeled "1." A) mineralocorticoid B) aldosterone C) corticotropin (A C T H ) D) dopamine E) cortisol 63) 64) A deficiency of w hich hormone can lead to diabetes insipidus? A) 14 B) 3 C) 8 D) 2 64) E) 7 65) Identify the hormone labeled "5." A) thyroid - releasing hormone B) parathyroid hormone (PT H ) C) thyroxin D) thyroid - stimulating hormone E) th yrotropin 65) 66) Identify the hormone labeled "13." A) testosterone B) oxytocin C) progesterone D) estrogen E) L H 66) 67) Which of the follow ing elements is necessary for the production of th yroid hormone? A) colloid B) iodine C) sodiu m D) potassium E) iron 67) 68) Which of the follow ing cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood - calcium concentration? A) osteoclasts B) alp ha cells C) C cells D) osteoblasts E) A ll cells in the body, especially cartilage, bone, and muscle cells. 68) 69) Which of the follow ing is a know n effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues? A) increased body temperature B) increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation C) increased oxygen consumption D) increased heart rate E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 69) 70) Thyroid hormone contains the element A) iron. B) iodine. 70) C) zinc. 10 D) fluorine. E) chlorine. 71) Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of A) hypothyroidism. B) hypoparathyroidism. C) h yperthyroidism. D) h yperparathyroidism. E) diabetes insipidus. 71) 72) T he hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body tem perature is A) th yroxine. B) calcitonin. C) glucagon. D) parathyroid hormone. E) somatotropin. 72) 73) A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is A) th yroxine. B) calcitonin. C) oxytocin. D) parathyroid hormone. E) glucagon. 73) 74) T he condition know n as hirsutism can result from too A) much insulin. B) much A C T H . C) little TS H . D) little glucagon. E) much androgen production. 74) 75) The C cells of the thyroid gland produce A) calcitonin. B) PT H. C) th yroxine. D) triiodothyronine. E) TSH . 75) 76) Increased levels of the hormone ________ w ill lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood. A) calcitonin B) cortisol C) PT H D) aldosterone E) thymosin 76) 77) W here does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place? A) in pinocytotic vesicles B) in rough endoplasmic reticulum C) in apical microvilli D) in the lumen of the thyroid follicle E) in lysosomes 77) 11 78) TS H plays a key role in the ________ of thyroid hormones. A) inhibition B) synthesis C) inhibition and secretion D) synthesis and release E) release 78) 79) T he control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation. A) homeostatic B) endocrine C) hepatic D) vascular E) pancreatic 79) 80) Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to A) cretinism. B) hypothyroidism. C) m yxedema. D) high blood levels of TS H . E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 80) 81) Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the A) heart. B) kidneys. C) pituitary gland. D) gonads. E) thyroid gland. 81) 82) The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all these steps step. A) activation of a specific gene B) binding to a cytoplasmic receptor protein C) binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane D) specific transport into the target cell E) activation of mitochondria one. Identify the 82) 83) W hich of the follow ing is an action of TSH? A) stimulates T 3 and T4 secretion B) stimulates iodide trapping by thyroid follicle cells C) increases cyclic A MP concentration w ithin thyroid follicle cells D) stimulates pinocytosis of colloid by thyroid follicle cells E) inhibits T 3 and T 4 secretion 83) 84) Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, w hich triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. W hat glands are these and w hich hormone is lacking? A) th yroid glands; levothyroxine B) parathyroid glands; levothyroxine C) th yroid glands; calcitonin D) parathyroid glands; calcitonin E) parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone 84) 12 85) Parathyroid hormone does all of the follow ing, that it doesn't A) enhance the reabsorption of calcium at the kidneys. B) inhibit osteoblast activity. C) stimulate osteoclast activity. D) stimulate the formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys. E) build up bone. 85) 86) The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is A) glucagon. B) parathyroid hormone. C) growth hormone. D) thyroid hormone. E) insulin. 86) 87) T he parathyroid glands produce a hormone that A) increases the level of glucose in the blood. B) increases the level of potassium ions in the blood. C) stimulates the formation of w hite blood cells. D) increases the level of sodium ions in the blood. E) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood. 87) 88) T he zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces A) glucocorticoids. B) epinephrine. C) mineralocorticoids. D) norepinephrine. E) androgens. 88) 89) T he zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces A) glucocorticoids. B) epinephrine. C) mineralocorticoids. D) androgens. E) norepinephrine. 89) 90) T he zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces A) mineralocorticoids. B) norepinephrine. C) androgens. D) glucocorticoids. E) epinephrine. 90) 91) T he suprarenal medulla produces A) corticosteroids. B) mineralocorticoids. C) catecholamines. D) androgens. E) glucocorticoids. 91) 13 92) A hormone that promotes A) parathormone. B) aldosterone. C) erythropoietin. D) thymosin. E) cortisol. in the liver is 92) 93) A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is A) parathormone. B) aldosterone. C) thymosin. D) somatotropin. E) cortisol. 93) 94) C ushing disease results from an excess of A) glucocorticoids. B) growth hormone. C) epinephrine. D) A D H. E) parathyroid hormone. 94) 95) Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of N a+ is the action of A) oxytocin. B) aldosterone. C) calcitonin. D) cortisone. E) antidiuretic hormone. 95) 96) T he suprarenal medulla produces the hormones A) norcortisol and cortisol. B) epinephrine and norepinephrine. C) an drogens and progesterone. D) corticosterone and testosterone. E) synephrine and neosynephrine. 96) 97) D amage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in A) increased volume of urine formation. B) increased water retention. C) the loss of axillary and pubic hair. D) decreased levels of sodium ion in the blood. E) decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose. 97) 98) A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the follow ing, A) the rate of glycogen formation by the liver. B) the level of fatty acids in the blood. C) A C T H levels. D) the rate of glucose synthesis by the liver. E) fatty acid metabolism by muscle cells. 98) 14 99) If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, w hat unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry? A) decrease of blood glucose B) both an increase of insulin an d an increase in blood glucose C) increase of insulin D) increase of blood glucose E) decrease of insulin 99) 100) Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes A) goiter. B) diabetes insipidus. C) A d dison disease. D) C ushing disease. E) diabetes mellitus. 100) 101) A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is A) renin. B) calcitonin. C) aldosterone. D) insulin. E) cortisol. 101) 102) Cells of the suprarenal cortex produce A) epinephrine. B) norepinephrine. C) angiotensin. D) A C T H. E) aldosterone. 102) 103) Which of the follow ing hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sy mpathetic nervous system? A) insulin B) growth hormone C) cortisol D) parathyroid hormone E) epinephrine 103) 104) Which gland is called the "emergency gland " and helps the body adjust to stress? A) pancreas B) pituitary C) th ymus D) adrenal (su...
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