ch20 - Exam N ame 1 A rtery is to as vein is to A efferent...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam N ame___________________________________ 1) A rtery is to ________ as vein is to ________. A) efferent; aw ay B) afferent; aw ay C) afferent; efferent D) toward; aw ay E) efferent; afferent 1) 2) T he heart beats approximately ________ times each day. A) 100,000 B) 1,000,000 C) 10,000,000 D) 10,000 E) 1,000 2) 3) T he heart p umps approximately ________ liters of blood each day. A) 100,000 B) 15,000 C) 20,000 D) 8,000 3) E) 50,000 4) Excess fluid in the ________ causes cardiac tamponade. A) pericardial cavity B) apex of heart C) visceral pericardium D) both atria E) left ventricle 4) 5) Tetanic m uscle contractions don't occur in a normal cardiac muscle because A) cardiac muscle tissue contracts on its ow n. B) the refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes. C) neural stimulation is lacking. D) potassium channels outnumber sodiu m channels. E) the refractory period ends before the muscle reaches peak tension. 5) 6) The adult heart is roughly the size of A) a man's clenched fist. B) the liver. C) the brain. D) the hand of a 10- year- old. E) the gallbladder. 6) 7) Which of the following descriptions matches the term A) visceral pericardium B) aorta C) pericardial cavity D) apex of heart E) right atrium 7) 1 8) The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is know n as A) cardiomyopathy. B) mitral valve prolapse. C) pericarditis. D) pleural effusion. E) cardiac tamponade. 8) 9) T he interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus A) contain arteries. B) are grooves on the surface of the heart. C) contain veins. D) contain fat. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 9) 10) T he structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal circulation is the A) fossa ovalis. B) foramen ovale. C) coronary sinus. D) interatrial septum. E) ligamentum arteriosus. 10) 11) Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the A) bicuspi d valve. B) tricuspid valve. C) mitral valve. D) aortic val ve. E) p ulmonary valve. 11) 12) Intercalated discs serve to transfer ________ from cell to cell. A) the force of contraction B) action potentials C) electrical signals D) ionic currents E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 12) 13) Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells differ in a few ways. W hich of the follow ing is one of them? A) Cardiac muscle cells have a single, centered nucleus. B) Cardiac muscle cells branch. C) Cardiac muscle cells lack transverse tubules. D) Skeletal m uscle cells lack intercalated discs. E) Cardiac muscle cells are smaller in size. 13) 14) T he atrioventricular val ves permit blood flow A) in both directions. B) in one direction only. C) in many directions. D) from a ventricle to an atrium. E) in opposite directions on the right and left. 14) 2 15) Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the A) conus arteriosus. B) left ventricle. C) right ventricle. D) right atrium. E) left atrium. 15) 16) Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the A) conus arteriosus. B) right ventricle. C) right atrium. D) left atrium. E) left ventricle. 16) 17) The earlike extension of the atrium is the A) auricle. B) coronary sulcus. C) ventricle. D) atricle. E) coronary sinus. 17) 18) T he coronary sulcus is a groove that A) marks the boundary line between the right and left ventricles. B) marks the border between the atria and ventricles. C) separates the atrioventricular valv es from the atria. D) separates the coronary arteries from the coronary veins. E) marks the boundary line between the right and left atria. 18) 19) In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the A) mediastinum. B) pleural space. C) ventral cavity. D) pericardial space. E) cardiac notch. 19) 20) T he cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to A) trabeculae carneae. B) coronary sulci. C) chordae ten dineae. D) papillary muscles. E) interatrial septa. 20) 21) Contractions of the papillary muscles A) prevent the atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria. B) close the semilunar valves. C) eject blood from the ventricles. D) eject blood from the atria into the ventricles. E) close the atrioventricular valves. 21) 3 22) T he visceral pericardium is the same as the A) epicardium. B) mediastinum. C) endocardium. D) myocardium. E) parietal pericardium. 22) 23) Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of A) cardiac muscle cells. B) smooth muscle cells. C) fibrocytes. D) epitheliocytes. E) chondrocytes. 23) 24) The right ventricle pumps blood to the A) right atrium. B) left atrium. C) aorta. D) right and left lungs. E) left ventricle. 24) 25) The left ventricle pumps blood to the A) pulmonary circuit. B) right ventricle. C) lungs. D) aorta. E) right atrium. 25) 26) T he right atrium receives blood from the A) superior vena cava. B) inferior vena cava. C) coronary sinus. D) systemic circuit. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 26) 27) In order to perform a C A BG, a cardiac surgeon must A) open the pericardial sac. B) visualize the carotid arteries. C) open the myocardium to see the A V valves. D) visualize the pulmonary valve. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 27) 28) When a blood clot forms on a ruptured plaque in a coronary artery, the condition is referred to as a(n) A) coronary thrombosis. B) myocardial infarction. C) coronary spasm. D) angina pectoris. E) pulmonary embolism. 28) 4 29) When the left ventricle contracts, the distance from the apex to the base A) decreases. B) increases. C) remains unchanged. 29) 30) W hen the left ventricle contracts, the diameter of the ventricular chamber A) decreases. B) remains the same. C) increases. 30) 31) Cardiac cells damaged by infarction w ill show w hich of the follow ing? A) release of enzymes into the circulation B) sw itch to anaerobic metabolism C) release of C K - M B into the circulation D) release of troponin T and I into the circulation E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 31) 32) Blood flow ing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the ________ valve. A) p ulmonary semilunar B) bicuspid C) mitral D) tricuspid E) aortic semilunar 32) 33) A s blood leaves the right ventricle it passes through the ________ an d then into the pulmonary trunk. A) aorta B) superior vena cava C) p ulmonary veins D) inferior vena cava E) conus arteriosus 33) 34) Coronary veins empty into the A) left atrium. B) conus arteriosus. C) left ventricle. D) right ventricle. E) right atrium. 34) 35) There are ________ pulmonary veins. A) 4 B) 12 35) C) 2 D) 8 36) Rupture of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle may result in A) bicuspid regurgitation. B) mitral regurgitation. C) bicuspid prolapse. D) mitral valve prolapse. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 5 E) 6 36) 37) W hen the semilunar valves close, the A V valves then A) make the third heart sound. B) prolapse. C) open. D) close. E) contract. 37) 38) T he ________ deliver(s) blood to the myocardium. A) coronary arteries B) cardiac veins C) carotid arteries D) coronary sinus E) superior vena cava 38) 39) The connective tissue fibers of the myocardium A) provide physical support for cardiac muscle. B) provide elasticity to help return the heart to its normal size. C) add strength and prevent overexpansion of the heart. D) help distribute the forces of contraction. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 39) 40) Blood is supplied to the left atrium by the A) left coronary artery. B) pulmonary arteries. C) brachiocephalic artery. D) phrenic arteries. E) right coronary artery. 40) 41) T he pulmonary semilunar valve prevents back ward flo w into the A) aorta. B) p ulmonary trunk. C) left atrium. D) right ventricle. E) pulmonary veins. 41) 42) T he bicuspid or mitral valve is located A) between the left atrium and left ventricle. B) in the opening of the aorta. C) in the opening of the pulmonary trunk. D) w here the venae cavae join the right atrium. E) between the right atrium and right ventricle. 42) 43) T he ________ valve prevents back ward flow into the left atrium. A) bicuspid B) semicaval C) pulmonic D) semilunar E) tricuspid 43) 6 44) The function of an atrium is to A) collect blood. B) pump blood to the lungs. C) collect blood then pump it to the ventricle. D) p ump blood into the systemic circuit. E) pump blood to the ventricle. 44) 45) Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has all the follow ing characteristics, A) works harder. B) produces about four to six times more pressure w hen it contracts. C) has a thicker wall. D) is round in cross section. E) pumps a greater volume. that it 45) 46) W hich of the follow ing are involved in the p ulmonary circuit? A) left ventricle, pulmonary veins, right atrium B) right ventricle, pulmonary veins, aorta C) superior vena cava, right atrium, left ventricle D) right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left atrium E) inferior vena cava, right atrium, aorta 46) 47) T he right pulmonary veins carry ________ blood to the ________ . A) oxygenated; right lung B) deoxygenated; superior vena cava C) deoxygenated; left atrium D) oxygenated; left atrium E) deoxygenated; right atrium 47) 48) The follow ing is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart. 48) 1. right atrium 2. left atrium 3. right ventricle 4. left ventricle 5. venae cavae 6. aorta 7. pulmonary trunk 8. pulmonary veins What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation? A) 5, 1, 3, 7, 8, 2, 4, 6 B) 1, 2, 7, 8, 3, 4, 6, 5 C) 5, 3, 1, 7, 8, 4, 2, 6 D) 5, 1, 3, 8, 7, 2, 4, 6 E) 1, 7, 3, 8, 2, 4, 6, 5 7 49) T he pulmonary arteries carry blood to the A) liver. B) lungs. C) heart. D) brain. E) intestines. 49) 50) T he pulmonary veins carry blood to the A) intestines. B) liver. C) brain. D) heart. E) lungs. 50) 51) The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the A) left atrium. B) left ventricle. C) right ventricle. D) interatrial septum. E) right atrium. 51) 52) Blood is supplied to the myocardium by A) the coronary sinus. B) the coronar y arteries. C) arteries that branch off the subclavian arteries. D) contact with blood in the pumping chambers. E) arteries that branch from the pulmonary arteries. 52) 53) The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the ________ arteries. A) subclavian B) circumflex C) pulmonary D) carotid E) coronary 53) 54) T he marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the A) aorta. B) coronary sinus. C) left coronary artery. D) circumflex artery. E) right coronary artery. 54) 55) The circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular artery are branches of the A) coronary sinus. B) aorta. C) interventricular artery. D) left coronary artery. E) right coronary artery. 55) 8 56) The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the A) coronary sinus. B) superior vena cava. C) inferior vena cava. D) aorta. E) coronary sulcus. 56) - 57) Identify the structure labeled "19." A) ligamentum arteriosum B) p ulmonary semilunar valve C) bicuspid valve D) tricuspid valve E) aortic semilunar valve 57) 9 58) Identify the structure labeled "8." A) moderator band B) pectinate muscles C) trabeculae carneae D) papillary muscles E) chordae tendineae 58) 59) Identify the structure labeled "6." A) aortic semilunar valve B) cusp of tricuspid valve C) p ulmonary semilunar valve D) bicuspid valve E) ligamentum arteriosum 59) 60) W hich chamber receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circuit? A) 13 B) 5 C) 10 D) 16 E) both 5 and 16 60) 61) Identify the structure labeled "21." A) aortic semilunar valve B) tricuspid valve C) p ulmonary semilunar valve D) ligamentum arteriosum E) bicuspid valve 61) 62) In cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of A) decreased membrane permeability to calcium ions. B) increased membrane permeability to chloride ions. C) increased membrane permeability to potassium ions. D) decreased membrane permeability to sodium ions. E) increased membrane permeability to sodium ions. 62) 63) The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to A) increased membrane permeability to potassium ion. B) increased membrane permeability to sodium ions. C) calcium channels remaining open. D) movement of fe wer sodium ions across the cell membrane. E) decrease in the amount of calcium diffusing across the membrane. 63) 64) In cardiac muscle A) calcium ions play no role in the process of contraction. B) calcium ions play an important role in repolarizing the membrane after the depolarization phase. C) about 20 percent of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell. D) calcium ions are not released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. E) calcium ions do not bind to troponin molecules. 64) 10 65) T he normal pacemaker of the heart is located in A) the atrioventricular node. B) both the left and right ventricles. C) the wall of the left ventricle. D) the sinoatrial node. E) the Purkinje fibers. 65) 66) A bnormally slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the ________ in an E C G tracing. A) P - R interval B) R - T interval C) T w ave D) P wave E) Q RS complex 66) 67) As a result of the long refractory period in the cardiac action potential, cardiac muscle exhibit A) treppe. B) fatigue. C) tonus. D) tetany. E) recruitment. 67) 68) If the pacemaker cells in the S A node become more permeable to potassium ions, the A) cells w ill hyperpolarize. B) cells w ill depolarize. C) heart rate w ill increase. D) heart rate w ill decrease. E) heart rate w ill decrease and cells w ill hyperpolarize. 68) 69) If the connection between the S A node and A V node becomes blocked, A) the atria w ill contract more forcefully. B) the ventricles w ill beat faster. C) the ventricles w ill beat more slow ly. D) the ventricular beat w ill remain unchanged. E) cardiac output will increase. 69) 70) The follow ing are structural components of the conducting system of the heart. 70) 1. Purkinje fibers 2. A V bundle 3. A V node 4. S A node 5. bundle branches The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is A) 3, 5, 4, 2, 1. B) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5. C) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1. D) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1. E) 3, 2, 4, 5, 1. 11 71) T he P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from A) depolarization of the atria. B) depolarization of the S A node. C) depolarization of the ventricles. D) repolarization of the atria. E) depolarization of the A V node. 71) 72) If there is a complete block between the S A node and the A V node, how would the E C G be affected? A) T here will be much bigger P waves. B) T he P - R interval w ill be shorter. C) T he rate of P waves will be faster than the rate of Q RS complexes. D) The Q RS duration will be longer. E) T he ventricles w ill stop beating. 72) 73) Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the A) Q RS complex. B) T wave. C) PR complex. D) P wave. E) S wave. 73) 74) The T wave on an E C G tracing represents A) ventricular contraction. B) ventricular depolarization. C) ventricular repolarization. D) atrial depolarization. E) atrial repolarization. 74) 75) A nalysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the follow ing, A) condition of the conducting system. B) heart rate. C) stroke volume. D) effects of drugs and poisons. E) duration of the ventricular action potential. the 75) 76) D uring the T wave of the electrocardiogram, the ventricles are A) repolarizing. B) depolarizing. C) relaxing. D) contracting. E) both repolarizing and relaxing. 76) 77) Pacemaker cells in the S A node A) are special neurons that convey signals from the brain to the heart. B) can spontaneously depolarize. C) also contract w ith the rest of the cells in the heart w all. D) have a well - defined resting potential. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 77) 12 78) Pacemaker cells isolated from the S A node generate action potentials at ________ beats per minute. A) 100–140 B) 40–60 C) 20–40 D) 80–100 E) 140–180 78) 79) ________ is to slow heart rate as ________ is to fast heart rate. A) A ngina; infarction B) Bradycardia; cardiomyopathy C) Cardiac tamponade; bradycardia D) Tachycardia; brad ycardia E) Brad ycardia; tachycardia 79) 80) Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the E K G's A) S- T segment. B) Q T interval. C) T wave. D) Q RS complex. E) P wave. 80) 81) Put in correct order the sequence in w hich excitation would move through the conducting system of the heart: 1. Purkinje fibers 4. SA node 2. A V bundle 5. bundle branches 3. A V node A) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5. B) 3, 5, 4, 2, 1. C) 3, 2, 4, 5, 1. D) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1. E) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1. 81) 82) The first heart sound is heard w hen the A) semilunar valves close. B) A V valves open. C) A V valves close. D) atria contract. E) blood enters the aorta. 82) 83) The first heart sound ("lub") A) is associated w ith opening of the aortic valve. B) is associated w ith closing of the aortic valve. C) is associated w ith opening of the mitral valve. D) is associated w ith closing of the mitral valve. E) is associated w ith atrial systole. 83) 84) Considering the left ventricle, w hy does isovolumetric ventricular contraction occur during ventricular systole? A) The ventricle is still filling w ith blood and therefore cannot eject blood during this time. B) T he ventricle needs to pressurize the blood to close the aortic valve. C) The bicuspid valve needs time to shut before the ventricle can eject blood. D) A ortic pressure is higher than ventricular pressure and the ventricle must pressurize the blood to open the aortic valve. E) Ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure so the ventricle cannot eject blood. 84) 13 85) The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral val ve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the A) atrial systole. B) dicrotic phase. C) late diastolic filling phase. D) systolic ejection phase. E) early diastolic filling phase. 85) 86) A heart murmur might be caused by A) sw irling of blood in the ventricle. B) aortic valve insufficiency. C) mitral valve insufficiency. D) pulmonic valve insufficiency. E) A ll of the answ ers are correct. 86) 87) T he systolic part (both atrial and ventricular) of a cardiac cycle lasts on average A) 370 msec. B) 5 seconds. C) 800 msec. D) 3 seconds. E) 100 msec. 87) 88) A t a heart rate of 60 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts A) 1 second. B) 60 milliseconds. C) 370 milliseconds. D) 630 milliseconds. E) 60 seconds. 88) 89) D uring ventricular systole, the A) A V valves are closed. B) pressure in the aorta remains constant. C) pressure in the ventricles remains constant. D) blood is entering the ventricles. E) atria are contracting. 89) 14 - 90) W hat occurs at the area labeled " D " on the graph? A) A V valve opens B) semilunar valve opens C) A V valve opens and diastolic filling begins D) ventricle contracts E) diastolic filling begins 90) 91) What volume is labeled " G " on the graph? A) ejection fraction B) stroke volume C) en d - diastolic volume D) cardiac output E) en d - systolic volume 91) 15 92) What occurs at " A " on the graph? A) A V valve opens B) semilunar valve opens C) A V valve closes D) semilunar valve closes E) end systolic volume 92) 93) What volume is labeled "E" on the graph? A) total cardiac volume B) en d - systolic volume C) stroke volume D) en d - diastolic volume E) cardiac output 93) 94) What occurs at the circled label "5" on the graph? A) isovolumetric systole B) ventricular refilling C) increased heart rate D) isovolumetric contraction E) peak systolic pressure 94) 95) W hat occurs at the area labeled "B" on the graph? A) semilunar valve closes B) A V valve closes C) ventricular ejection occurs D) semilunar valve opens E) A V valve opens 95) 96) What occurs at the circled label "4" on the graph? A) isovo...
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