Calculator 9 Newton’s Second Law How does a cart change its motion when you push and pull on it? You might think that the harder you push on a cart, the faster it goes. Is the cart’s velocity related to the force you apply? Or does the force just change the velocity? Also, what does the mass of the cart have to do with how the motion changes? We know that it takes a much harder push to get a heavy cart moving than a lighter one. A Force Sensor and an Accelerometer will let you measure the force on a cart simultaneously with the cart’s acceleration. The total mass of the cart is easy to vary by adding masses. Using these tools, you can determine how the net force on the cart, its mass, and its acceleration are related. This relationship is Newton’s second law of motion. A c c e l e r o m e t e r F o r c e S e n s o r Figure 1 OBJECTIVES Collect force and acceleration data for a cart as it is moved back and forth. Compare force vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Analyze a graph of force vs. acceleration. Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. MATERIALS LabPro or CBL 2 interface Vernier Force Sensor TI Graphing Calculator low-friction dynamics cart DataMate program 0.50-kg mass Vernier Low-g Accelerometer PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS 1.When you push on an object, how does the magnitude of the force affect its motion? If you push harder, is the change in motion smaller or larger? Do you think this is a direct or inverse relationship? 2. Assume that you have a bowling ball and a baseball, each suspended from a different rope. If you hit each of these balls with a full swing of a baseball bat, which ball will change its motion by the greater amount?
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