History 355 Course Notes - Euro-Late Middle Ages and...

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Unformatted text preview: Euro-­‐Late Middle Ages and Renaissance Notes: Sam Osborne History 355 Date: January 22, 2015: (Syllabus Day) A. Read the Inferno to Canto 18 for Tuesday, then the rest by next Thursday. B. Dante assignment, imagine you are Dante and then make your own Hell and then put people into your Hell that you want in there. a. Due February 5th Date: January 27, 2015: Dante’s Inferno A. Dante’s Italy: a. Remember that during this time period, Italy wasn’t Italy (it was still divided into the Papal States and city-­‐states, Papal States under the control of the Pope (who acted as the feudal lord). i. These were Naples, Papal States, and the Holy Roman Empire 1. Within those there were the cities of Florence, Milan, Venice, etc. b. Machiavelli understood that an Italy divided wasn’t the way to survive, and eventually his prediction will be right when kings start to take over the city-­‐states. i. City-­‐states were further divided because of the various important families that resided within the city-­‐states, who were constantly killing one another. c. During much of this time period, the holy Roman emperors are constantly fighting with the Popes over who would be the rulers of Northern Italy (this effectively gave the people of Northern Italy a lot of negotiation power over whose side they would be on during struggles). i. Because of this division, there were two groups that formed: the Guelphs and the Ghibelines (the people who tended to follow the Ghiblines were people who followed the Emperor and the Ghuelphs tended to be lower nobles, merchants, craftsmen, and the clergy). d. So many of these city-­‐states form “Communes,” that basically said that they were politically independent. i. Guelphs typically favored this type of organization as well as the Republican Ideals, which was an open type of government (not like a monarchy). 1. However although this type of government was effective, these types of governments would usually implode because of political infighting between the noble families, which would usually lead to a tyrant coming into power. a. These tyrants were usually self-­‐made men who had no problem using force to get whatever they want. i. They would then try to legitimize themselves by becoming patrons of the arts. B. Florence: a. It was governed as a Commune and it was a Public state, there are one of the many cities (but are the second longest) that fight against princely rule. i. However with all this happening, Florence is constantly divided between the merchants and craftsmen against the nobles (remember these are the Guelphs). b. In the year _____ the _________ rise in rebellion and for a short time take over the city of Florence, but are eventually beaten back. c. Although the Guelphs were the main group, there were also the Black and White Guelphs, who bitterly opposed one another (the black Guelphs leaned very heavily towards the Pope). d. Florence becomes extremely wealthy because of various items: i. Wool, but more important banking: 1. Florence becomes the baking center of all of Europe; the Italians would eventually take the banking power from the Jews and would then kind of smudge the rule on no interest. a. Florence is equipped to do this because of its currency, the Florin. It becomes the standard coin of all of Europe because it was seen as the most stable. e. Within the city of Florence there were two main families, the _____________ and the Medici. i. The two families would become immensely wealthy and would be able to have their banking enterprise in many of the major regions and in different empires. C. Dante: a. Dante Alighieri was born in 1265 and dies in 1321, he was born in Florence and dies in Ravenna. i. Remember that Dante himself was a White Guelph and that he would become exiled from Florence because of his status as a White Guelph. b. He was born to a well off merchant, he would become a representative for the Guelph political party, but he would eventually get thrown out of the city of Florence because of the Black Guelphs coup in Florence. i. Interestingly, after he was thrown out of the city of Florence, Dante would then side with the Holy Roman Emperor and would come to write “De Monrachia” (On Monarchia. 1. Within this work he would say that the Emperor should rule and that the Pope should stay in the spiritual realm of politics because he was acting like a king of the physical realm. At the same time Dante says this, he starts to say that there are two parts of a human, the spiritual and the temporal. a. Basically, Dante is saying that we should follow the ancient philosophers like Aristotle during their time on Earth, but for the safety of their souls they should follow the pope and the rest of the clergy. c. Beatrice: i. On the last decade of his life, Dante would come to write the Divine Comedy (33 Cantos each, plus one vision for 100): 1. It is important to note that Beatrice was a real person, named Beatrice Portonari. ii. Also important to note that Dante only had two interactions with Beatrice in his entire life (once when she was 9 and he was 8) and once when he was 18 years old. Date: January 29, 2015: Dante’s Inferno Continued: A. The inferno is divided into 3 distinct regions: Incontinence (sins that don’t harm others, which is a lack of control of physical desires), secondly there is Violence (physical harm); thirdly there is Fraud (treachery, betrayal, etc.) a. They key here is that those who end up in Hell are those who did not repent before their death. B. (Mostly discussion in class this day) Date: February 2, 2015: The Black Death: A. 14th Century a. Remember that before the Plague there was Famine, Bad Weather, War, Revolts (social upheaval), schism in the Catholic Church, anger, and dissatisfaction and resentment with the Catholic Church. i. Note that all of this happened in the 14th century, but also note that it brought about social change and reforms. 1. It is important to remember that all of those things listed will bring about a huge resentment towards the leaders of the Church and politics. B. Before The Black Death (1300-­‐1347) a. Hit Europe first in the year 1347 and will fade away in the year 1351, but it will return but it will be more isolated than the first time it appeared in Europe. b. Before the Black Death arrived there was a differing in the weather circa 1300 called the “Little Ice Age,” where the weather acted out of the norm (started off a little warmer, but then it got cold during rainy summers). c. Malthusian Crisis: is when a population exceeds the amount of food that is available for the population (this was a problem during the 14th century because of the huge amount of people living during that time and Europe’s population would only eventually recover in the 1600s). i. Leads to famine, which in turn would lead to starvation and malnutrition that would lead to weaker immune systems, which then would lead to being more susceptible to the plague. d. In the year 1318, there was a disease that started to kill cattle (thought to be Anthrax), there start to be rumors of cannibalism (Hansel and Gretel story is thought to come about during this time period). Although there was a huge shortage of food, most people didn’t die of starvation, but of diseases that are associated with malnutrition. e. In the year 1315, due to many circumstances about 5-­‐10% of the population across Europe died. f. In the year 1325, things start to return to normal, but it would be short lived because in the years 1346-­‐1347 there would be wide spread famine again, but then also the plague would arrive in the year 1347. g. It is also important to note that because of the continual hardships that the people had to face many people were very skeptical of the churches teachings after that. Also another consequence was that it created the atmosphere of there being a lot more criminal activity (it was either that or starve). There was also the failure of the government, not only because they were not equipped to handle such situations, but also because they had no systems in place to ever. C. The Black Death, or “The Great Mortality” (1347-­‐1351): a. (Discussion in class now) b. Think that the plague began in Mongolia/China by trade routes c. Characterized by: i. 1st Strand: 1. Abrasions at lymph nodes (swelling) 2. Sores and pustules (if they burst it was good) 3. Smells 4. Fever 5. Most common strand nd Strand: ii. 2 1. Would be in the blood (you would die quickly) rd Strand: iii. 3 1. Located in the lungs (called pneumonic plague) 2. Cough up blood (basically you’re screwed if you get this one) 3. This one is believed to be airborne (because of a mutation on the genetic code of the disease), also the least common strand iv. People only seemed to recover from the 1st strand of the Black Death, it was also the longest one too so the body had a chance to fight if off. d. Schadenfrende: Date: February 5, 2015: The Black Death A. For next week: Tuesday read to the end of chapter 3 (including the preface) B. Flagellant Movement: a. A movement that is penitential, stemming from the die that the Black Death is a punishment from God. So people would fledge themselves, which would create pain that in turn would absolve someone of their sins. i. They were usually men, and was held in places that the pestilence hadn’t hit yet. b. The Church does not support this movement after a while, but when these types of movements first started they backed these movements, but the Church quickly realized that they couldn’t control it. c. These men blamed the clergy for their sins, so they would on occasion attack people of the clergy, but they did not stop there they also attacked members of the Jewish faith. i. Blamed the Jews for poisoning the wells in the towns (this is an international conspiracy), there proof is these confessions after they had tortured them for a while. 1. They would use “The Wheel” during these torture sessions, you essentially you bind their body to the wheel (their limbs) and then the parts are crushed. C. Scientific Reasons: a. No exercise, sex or bathing because it opens your pores which leads to higher chance of getting inflicted. b. Astrology (Aquarius and the planets) c. Winds from the South d. Rulers disposition e. Location of towns in relation to where it is on Earth f. Unseasonable weather g. Eclipse h. Corruption of the air i. A comet D. Religious Reasons: Date: February 10, 2015: Giovanni and Lusanna: A. Women in the Renaissance a. Wife, Servant, Nun, Prostitute i. Choices for renaissance women career wise b. Two of these were honorable (wife and nun), but wife is dependent and the rest are not to a certain degree. i. According to Joan Kelly, women did not have their own Renaissance (authority and power highpoint for women was during the Medieval Period) c. Were disadvantaged by Roman Law and practice (ex: Lusanna can’t represent herself during her and Giovanni’s court case) i. The higher the status, the less equality you were given for women. d. Husbands were about two decades older than the women they would come to marry e. Couldn’t own property in your own name (thus making commerce and real-­‐estate out of your reach) i. Motherhood was the main priority of the wife, but more specifically to have male heirs 1. Marriage is not for love, but is a business decision a. The level of dowry was extremely important f. Courtesans (prostitutes that are higher up and are more honored than the run of the mill prostitute) Date: February 12, 2015: A. Micro-­‐history a. Story that reflects culture of the period (choosing a few people to make it more relatable) i. Unfortunately you might get misconceptions about the time and make generalizations B. Women in the Church: a. Misogyny, there was a very old standing tradition towards women because of the choices of Eve (all evil and suffering) b. Women choose this lifestyle because of the fear of giving birth, think of the medical practices of the time you can’t blame them. Date: February 17, 2015: A. “Hundred Years War” a. Was fought between the French and the British from 1337-­‐1453. b. Goes all the way back to the Norman conquest, when William the Duke of Normandy made himself the king od England, but it is important to note that he kept his holdings in France. c. BY 1154, the English kings control more of France than the French control of France. d. By the year 1223, the French had taken back most of the territory that the English held, it continues after his death. e. Philip IV, known as “the Fair” because he was handsome. Very determined figure, was a “dream bureaucrat,” also very very ruthless against his enemies (the Templars, etc.). Ascended the throne when he was 16, his opponents said he was cold-­‐blooded like a statue. Turned France from being ruled by a king into a bureaucratic system of government. In 1294 he starts to fight for Aquitaine, and will use the Scottish people to fight the English in their next war (also important to note that he was short of cash). TO fun d his army he arrests 100,00 Jews in France and then expels them and gains all their wealth that they possessed (also arrested Italian bankers to help amass wealth, also debased currency), would then go on to tax the clergy in France to also gain more money. Pope Boniface VIII actually does not agree with this practice and sends messages and edicts telling the French King they could not do this, but the Pope was very much ignored (the two would disagree over: legal rights of the clergy and the taxation of the clergy). In his dealings with the Knights Templar, Philip would end up owing them a lot of money, on Friday 13th, 1307 hundreds of French Templar Knights were arrested and then tortured until the “confessed” and then the organization was systematically wiped out. i. At this time, France is on the way to be a centralized state, but the kings are fighting to consolidate power. B. Edward I, English King (Longshanks, Hammer of the Scots) a. Spends a lot of his reign reforming law, nobility, and trying to crush the Scottish rebellion led by William Wallace. Militarily, he conquered Wales (after the 2nd rebellion he declared an all out warfare, but the Welsh were no match for the English forces); then his efforts were directed towards Scotland (where he would come into conflict with the Scots under the command of William Wallace). Longshanks would then go on to implement some of the same things that Philip IV did in France (clergy, customs duties, borrow form Italian banks, will also tax the Jews but by 1280 there was no more money to take from them and would finally expel the Jews in 1290, etc.). Was considered to be a very temperamental person and very imposing (because he was super tall hence his nickname, he was what medieval kings should be). He was also responsible with long term conflicts with the Scots, French, but he also established the “model parliament.” Instead of calling the barons, he would call the ordinary knights and peasants (House of Commons), this house would never say “no” to him and thus was designed to specifically play one house off of the other (1st time this house is given full authority in parliament). i. After Edward’s death, his son would come to rule, but his son (Edward II) would always then have a very problematic rule, he was blamed because the war with the Scots was not going well, but he was also attended by a very small group of favorites and was very inactive. Eventually he was deposed. Date: February 19, 2015: Hundred Years War Continued… A. Stuff that you should go to: a. Medieval poetry of social protest (12-­‐1 in the Hannah Ford Room, second floor of Bondurant) b. Boccaccio and the Coup in Florence (March 3rd, 6pm in Bryant Hall) B. Edward III a. Started the hundred Year War with the French, but there had been long standing disputes between the two rulers. The French would then have the problem of the last ruler of the _________ died in 1328 without an heir, thus giving Edward III a chance to claim the French throne. However, the French did not want an English king to be their ruler so the French put up another candidate. It is important to note that there was no law on this, so they created the Salic Law (basically says that the line could not be through a female line) and Edward would respect this decree for a time until the outbreak of the war. The war would become a dynastic war (it’s illegal in chivalric law) because for Edward’s claim to the throne. i. First period of the war: 1337-­‐1360 1. During this period the war was going well for the English forces and would continually push back the French forces. A reason for such massive success at the first phase of the war was because of a certain group, the Flanders (because they were super rich). It is important to note that there are no massive battles, but there are skirmishes all over the place, but the English continually would win these fights. a. Statistically speaking, the English forces should not have own this war, the French plan is to wait it out. C. Philip Valois: D. Chevauchee: a. Fighting technique that the English troops come to use, it is a lightning raid (guerilla warfare), they would attack on horses and the basic technique was destroy everything until the French give up. i. Because of this fighting technique, many French civilians started to get upset that the French king was just sitting there doing nothing. Eventually they pressure him enough so that he has to do something. b. In the summer of 1346, English forces would get into 20 miles of Paris and there would be a massive battle called, the Battle of Crecy. The French had the numbers advantage and would also have better equipment. The French forces will charge uphill into the Welsh Longbowmen who absolutely destroy the French forces with their volleys of arrows. E. Post Black Death: a. Edward, the Black Prince: i. Never ascends to the throne to become king, he was the king of the Chevauchee fighting technique. He takes a pretty large army to the French territory and would attack towns villages, pretty much anything that they could attack he attacked. He would land a crushing blow to the forces of the French at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. In the battle, the English would decimate the French army again with their archers at the top of the hill that they had taken position at. The French king would also lead the last charge, but when the charge broke the English forces would seize as many nobles as they could, including the king of the French (he would be taken back to England, he agrees willingly to a huge ransom for his return to France and agrees to give 1/3 of France over to the English king with complete sovereignty). 1. This would lead to massive unrest within the populace, and they would eventually revolt because they were displeased with the nobles and not the king himself. It began in Paris, the rebels actually kill the people who attended the person in charge of the country and the rebels in the countryside (Jacquerie) would also cause havoc. The thing that made them so mad was that the French nobles were trying to have their castles rebuilt for free. ii. Edward eventually realizes that he cannot have such a high ransom for the French King, but overall he will still keep a lot of his territories in France. Date: February 24, 2015: A. Intense fighting: a. From the year 1369-­‐1399 there is increased fighting between the French and English, we also start to see the beginning of sea battles, the French start to win the war and eventually the French would eventually take the fight to England and would start to attack seaside towns. However through all of this the French could not get rid of the English from Aquitaine. During this time John the Good dies, and is succeeded by Charles V (the Wise), he has no taste for war and will give the command of the French forces to someone else (Bertrand du Guesclin). He understood that the English could not fully oc...
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