Chapter23 - Wayne State University College of Liberal Arts...

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Wayne State UniversityCollege of Liberal Arts & SciencesDepartment of Physics and AstronomyAST 2010: Chapter 23AST 2010Descriptive AstronomyChapter 23Jupiter and SaturnDr. Elisabeth AtemsPhysics and Astronomy DepartmentWayne State University
AST 2010Descriptive AstronomyChapter 23: Jupiter and SaturnAST 2010: Chapter 23Part 1: Jupiter and Saturn2Be able to characterize the gross properties of the two planets – their approximate masses and sizes compared to Earth, their orbital radii, the temperatures of their cloud tops, and their flattened shapes.Discuss the planets’ rotation rates in the context of their flattening.Define belts and zones and explain their origins in terms of planetary rotation and the Coriolis force.Discuss possible reasons why Saturn’s atmospheric features are less prominent than Jupiter’s.Discuss current thinking about the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn.Characterize the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and explain their origin.
AST 2010: Chapter 23Jupiter3
AST 2010: Chapter 23Jupiter: Basic PropertiesMass ~320 Earth masses~2.5 times the mass of all the other planets combinedMean radius ~11 times that of EarthVolume ~1100 times that of EarthOrbital radius 5 AU − T in outer atmosphere is about 160 K (~ -170oF.)Rotates about its axis in 9.9 hours – visibly flattened at the equator4
AST 2010: Chapter 23The Appearance of Jupiter…Named after the king of the Roman godsAtmosphere shows dark belts alternating with light-colored zones.90% H2, 10% He plus traces of CH4, NH3, H20Gases plus solid particles and droplets… rich coloring may be due to complex organic moleculesFast-moving clouds swept around planet on powerful jet streams.5
AST 2010: Chapter 23… and SaturnShown here with its rings removedNamed after Roman god of agricultureBelt/zone system not as prominent as Jupiter’smay be we don’t see as far into its atmosphere (veiled by NH3condensate in outer cloud layers)At 9.5 AU from the Sun, Outer atmosphere T ~ 130 K (~ -230oF.)Rotates about its axis in 10.7 hoursslower than Jupiter but even more flattened at the equatorReached opposition Jan 5, 2014Above horizon all nightBright, easy to identify6
AST 2010: Chapter 23Saturn7
AST 2010: Chapter 23The Giants’ Interiors (1)Facts: The average densities of Jupiter and Saturn are comparable to that of water. (Jupiter = 1.3 kg/l, Saturn = 0.7 kg/l)based on: mass (from orbits of satellites) and volume (from angular size and distance)The masses are such that matter must be under immense pressure due to gravity at the centers of these planets.Conclusion: Jupiter and Saturn must be composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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Astronomy, Solar System, Planet, Titan

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