Phil 2300 Exam 4 Study Guide

Phil 2300 Exam 4 Study Guide - Phil 2300 Exam 4 Study Guide...

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Phil 2300 Exam 4 Study Guide Vocab Hobbes: 1. Psychological egoism – theory that every human action is motivated by self interest. (descriptive) 2. Ethical egoism – theory that everyone should pursue his or her own self interest. (prescriptive) 3. State of nature – a thought experiment involving the human condition without any form of government. (human relations prior to civil society) 4. Laws of nature – logical conclusions that can be deduced from a person’s concern for his/her survival. (My goal is survival and I can logically deduce certain rules of behavior that will help me survive.) 5. Right of nature – the liberty each person has to preserve his life, because there are no “rights” in the usual sense in the state of nature. If there are no rules, I’m at liberty to do whatever I want to preserve my life and happiness. Hobbes uses “right” to refer to this liberty. 6. First law of nature – Every man should try to get peace as far as he has hopes of attaining it. When he cannot get peace, he must go to war. 7. Second law of nature – A man should be willing, for peace and defense of himself, to be content with taking as much liberty as he would give other men. Other people will only set aside their liberty to harm you if you, in turn set aside your liberty to harm them. 8. Third law of nature – Men perform their covenants made. This law gives rise to justice and injustice. In order for there to be justice, there must be an enforcer and a covenant. Kant: 1. Maxim – a statement of one’s intended action and the reason why one would follow that action. 2. Hypothetical imperative – one needs to follow only if they further some end that one wants to achieve. (If you want to stay healthy, then you shouldn’t eat spoiled food) A. Technical imperatives: rules of skill B. Pragmatic imperatives: counsels of prudence. All aim at end of happiness. (“If you want x in circumstances C, do A.”) 3. Categorical imperative – one must follow it in all circumstances. “Do A in circumstances C.” First version: “Act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” Second version: “Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.” Utilitarianism: 4. Hedon – unit of pleasure. 5. Greatest happiness principle – actions are right in so far as they tend to promote a greater balance of pleasure over pain in the world as a whole.
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6. Act utilitarianism - the morally right action is the one which produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. 7. Rule utilitarianism - moral actions are those which conform to the rules which lead to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance." Ross and Moral Intuitionism: 8. Ideal utilitarianism – a correction of hedonistic utilitarianism (pleasure is the
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PHIL 2300 taught by Professor Byrd during the Fall '07 term at UT Arlington.

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Phil 2300 Exam 4 Study Guide - Phil 2300 Exam 4 Study Guide...

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