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MIDTERM 1 SG - Order Decreases in natural systems(entropy...

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Order Decreases in natural systems (entropy)       Requires energy to be produced/maintained       Energy w/in system can be drawn from one            part to another to increase orderliness           (decrease entropy).       Living organisms draw energy from           environment to establish & keep orderliness           (could be close to general definition of life) Metabolism Chemical sequences (of stepwise changes)           that provide energy       Chemicals that are building blocks of life           make more organisms       Ex: Photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation              (all help organism obtain energy necessary           to establish & keep order) Adaptations Ex: color of frogs, ability of fungi to “eat”            cellulose, ability of micro-organisms to grow            in acid hot springs (lethal for all other           organisms)       Features that adapt to environment Responsiveness Vague/broad biological concept       Organism senses change & responds to it Homeostasis When response to a change counteracts the           change       Ex: regulation of body temperature in           mammals & birds Stimulus  Environmental change that an organism           responds to Receptor  Structure that detects stimulus & triggers    response Reproduction  Allows for persistence of a population Genes Machinery responsible for offspring’s            resemblance of their parents       Chemical blueprints that specify organism (by           specifying parts & assembly)       DNA contains the blueprints in its linear           sequence of purine & pyrimidine bases Evolution  Based on the environment’s selection of           fitness (natural selection)       Genes change           Most are unsuitable & are lost, but some            produce better adaptations or “fitness”
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Viruses  Lack some characteristics of organisms          - Metabolism & Responsiveness          - Independent life Show orderliness, have adaptations,     reproduce (in a different way), have genes,    and evolve        Aren’t organisms, but PRODUCTS of organisms Interdependency Functioning of ecosystem depends on           activities of several diff kinds of organisms           (making them interdependent).
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