{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Chapter_5_-_Part_1

Chapter_5_-_Part_1 - Chapter 5 The Properties of Seawater...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5. The Properties of Seawater Water is crucial for life on our planet. In this chapter, we will learn about: Basic chemical notions Basic physical notions The water molecule Salinity The chemical and physical structure of the oceans Gases in seawater The ocean as a physical- chemical system
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Basic Chemical Notions Atoms The smallest unit that retains its chemical properties Nucleus = protons and neutrons Protons (+ charge) Neutrons (no charge) Electron shells = electrons (- charge)
Image of page 2
Molecule = two or more atoms chemically bonded together, for example, salt (NaCl). Ion = an atom with a charge, for example, sodium (Na - ).
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Isotopes of an element: Differ only in the number of neutrons All isotopes of a given element have the same chemical properties. These isotopes are all hydrogen (one proton) These isotopes are all hydrogen (one proton) These isotopes are all oxygen (8 protons) These isotopes are all oxygen (8 protons) Oxygen
Image of page 4
Basic Physical Notions To understand the properties of water, we must understand the concept of heat . Heat results from physical vibrations of atoms and molecules (also called kinetic energy). The more vibration, the greater the heat.
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Consequences of increasing heat in water Increasing vibration
Image of page 6
Note that some water molecules become gas before water changes from liquid to a gas = evaporation . The greater the vibration the greater the distances between molecules and therefore the less the density . Therefore, heat affects density.
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Water Molecule Asymmetry of a water molecule results in a dipole, with the oxygen end negatively charged and the hydrogen end positively charged.
Image of page 8
The dipole structure produces an electrostatic bond ( hydrogen bond ) between water molecules when they cluster together.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
H eat eat capacity capacity = heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 o C.
Image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern