Chapter_5_-_Part_1

Chapter_5_-_Part_1 - Chapter 5. The Properties of Seawater...

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Chapter 5. The Properties of Seawater Water is crucial for life on our planet. In this chapter, we will learn about: Basic chemical notions Basic physical notions The water molecule Salinity The chemical and physical structure of the oceans Gases in seawater The ocean as a physical- chemical system
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Basic Chemical Notions Atoms The smallest unit that retains its chemical properties Nucleus = protons and neutrons Protons (+ charge) Neutrons (no charge) Electron shells = electrons (- charge)
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Molecule = two or more atoms chemically bonded together, for example, salt (NaCl). Ion = an atom with a charge, for example, sodium (Na - ).
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Isotopes of an element: Differ only in the number of neutrons All isotopes of a given element have the same chemical properties. These isotopes are all hydrogen (one proton) These isotopes are all hydrogen (one proton) These isotopes are all oxygen (8 protons) These isotopes are all oxygen (8 protons) Oxygen
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Basic Physical Notions To understand the properties of water, we must understand the concept of heat . Heat results from physical vibrations of atoms and molecules (also called kinetic energy). The more vibration, the greater the heat.
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Consequences of increasing heat in water Increasing vibration
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Note that some water molecules become gas before water changes from liquid to a gas = evaporation . The greater the vibration the greater the distances between molecules and therefore the less the density . Therefore, heat affects density.
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The Water Molecule Asymmetry of a water molecule results in a dipole, with the oxygen end negatively charged and the hydrogen end positively charged.
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The dipole structure produces an electrostatic bond ( hydrogen bond ) between water molecules when they cluster together.
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H eat eat capacity capacity = heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 o C. Heat capacity of water is unusually high because
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course OCE 1001 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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Chapter_5_-_Part_1 - Chapter 5. The Properties of Seawater...

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