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PSC 126 Exam 1 SG

PSC 126 Exam 1 SG - PSC 126 Health Psychology Winter 2008...

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PSC 126: Health Psychology Winter, 2008 Study Guide Exam 1 This study guide focuses on what I consider to be the important material from the lectures. If you use this in combination with the handouts you will be in excellent shape for the lecture portion of the midterm. 1. Distinguish between signs and symptoms. Give an example of each. How does ‘sickness’ or ‘illness’ fit into the picture? a. Sign: objective indication body isn’t operating properly i. Ex: blood pressure, fever, etc. b. Symptom: subjective indications of improper bodily operation. Can’t really be measured on a meaningful scale across the board. i. Ex: Aches, pains, etc. c. Sickness/illness 2. How are health and disease related? Simple opposites, or in a more complex way? Is there a better scheme for considering issues of health and disease? a. Health is defined as: a complete state of physical, mental, and social well being 3. Discuss the four principal areas that health psychologists study. a. Health promotion and maintenance i. Designing interventions to change diet b. Prevention and treatment of illness i. Adherence of treatment ii. Factors associated with adherence 1. Psychological disposition – if you agree with doctor, more likely to adhere 2. Social context – if people encourage you to take meds, you will be more likely to (vice versa) 3. Situational demands – more complex action, less likely to adhere 4. Interactions with the health care system – positive = higher adherence 5. Side effects – less likely to adhere to treatment if side effects are negative c. Etiology and correlates of health, illness, and related dysfunction i. Etiology 1. Origins/causes of disease – personality factors play a role ii. Ulcers 1. Animal study showed cause to be stress 2. 1980s – bacterium found to have connection (heliobacter pylori) a. Makes antibiotic treatment 80% effective b. But bacteria is also found in 80% of ppl w/o ulcers and 10-30% of ppl with ulcers don’t have it at all iii. Opportunistic viruses
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1. Housed in body, don’t manifest until immunodeficiency occurs d. Analysis and improvement of the health care system and formulation of health policy i. Psychological control 1. No control of surroundings @the hospital (certain food, certain # of feedings, people going in and out at all hours, etc) 4. Define adherence and give an example. What is the adherence issue about injecting drug users (IDUs) and anti-HIV treatments? What kinds of things can improve adherence? a. Adherence: sticking to some sort of treatment b. The issue with IDUs is that the treatment requires several doses and IDUs are typically living unstable lifestyles, so it is unlikely they’ll stick with the treatment c. Anti-HIV treatments have low adherence because they, too, are multiple doses, but also because of the harshly negative side effects d. Things that can improve adherence are positive social settings, a good relationship with one’s doctor or the health care system, positive side effects, and easy treatment.
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