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PSC 126 EXAM 2 NOTES

PSC 126 EXAM 2 NOTES - PSC 126 EXAM 2 NOTES What Things are...

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Control groups Higher levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine (from the medulla) Low SI Poor health behaviors Increased likelihood of getting a cold PSC 126 EXAM 2 NOTES 2/4/08 What Things are stressful? o Experience can have a big impact o Characteristics of events (not mutually exclusive) 1) Negative events 2) Uncontrollable and unpredictable events You don’t necessarily need to have control, it just needs to seem like you do 3) Ambiguous events Hard to “primarily appraise” if the situation is ambiguous o Keeps you guessing Role ambiguity o Don’t know where you “fit” in the scheme of things o Student situation is a good example 4) overload Too much going on w/ too little time to do it = more stress! o Classes of Events Major life events 1967: paper published by Holmes and Rahe scaled events in people’s lives to identify relative impact they had on people = SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE (SRRS) o LCUs (life change units) LCU > 300 = major life crisis LCU < 150 = relatively normal o 1 st attempt to systematically understand and quantify these things higher LCUs = worse physical illness Problem w/ pre-assigned values Divorce could be good for the members, same as pregnancy values are too cut and dry Events are pretty heterogeneous (some +/-) Vacation, Christmas, death, marriage, foreclosure Some things you choose and plan o Holmes & Rahe scale isn’t used as much anymore Minor life events – “hassles” Richard Lazarus o Came up w/ appraisal processes o Hassles = irritating, frustrating and distressing demands that to some degree characterize everyday transactions w/ the environment More hassles cause poorer health outcomes Chronic stress More toxic than hassles and shorter term events Video o Making changes in the way we’re used to living causes stress o Stressors won’t have same effect on people o Architecture and accounting are stressful occupations o Chronic stress increases susceptibility to acute stressors 2/6/08 Physiology of Stress o Highly conscientious people tend to live longer o 1 st system affected by stress: Sympathetic NS Involved in activities associated w/ expenditure of energy from reserves stored in the body Enhanced by release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from the pituitary o Hypothalamus Part of brain that receives input from “emotion” brain areas Influences the 4 Fs: fighting, fleeing, feeding, and sex o For HPA (hormonal system, like SAM):
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We’re concerned w/ CRH (corticotrophin releasing hormone) CRH = CRF Released by HPA system, stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH o 2 nd system in axis: Pituitary Closely controlled by hypothalamus Anterior Corticotrophin is of interest to us o AKA: Adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) o Effects secretion of other endocrine glands Posterior Releases oxytocin – the “love hormone” o 3 rd structure: Adrenal Cortex Adrenal medulla is inner part of gland
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