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PSC 126 Exam 2 SG

PSC 126 Exam 2 SG - PSC 126 Health Psychology Winter 2008...

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PSC 126: Health Psychology Winter, 2008 Study Guide Exam 2 This study guide focuses on what I consider to be the important material from the lectures. If you use this you will be in excellent shape for the lecture portion of the midterm. Stress 1. Distinguish between the four common definitions of stress. a. 2. Distinguish between stressor, strain, and the stress response. a. Stressor – stressful events themselves b. Strain - c. Stress response - 3. Describe Lazarus’s theory of stress. Be sure to distinguish between the three types of negative primary appraisals. What is the difference between primary and secondary appraisal? a. Came up with appraisal process (did study with genital surgery) b. Hassles are irritating, frustrating, and distressing demands that to some degree characterize everyday transactions with the environment. c. Primary appraisal – helps people determine the meaning of events when they confront a new or changing environment i. Harm – assessment of damage that has already been done by an event ii. Threat – assessment of possible future damage that may be brought about by the event iii. Challenge – potential to overcome and even profit from the event d. Secondary appraisal – assessment of one’s coping abilities and resources and whether they’ll be sufficient to meet the harm, threat, and challenge of the event. 4. Describe the Speisman/Lazarus study in which there were four groups of individuals who were shown the gruesome film about genital surgery. What does this study tell us about how individuals respond to a potentially stressful event? a. Stress is not only a natural response to an event itself, but also depends on the person’s appraisal of that event b. In the study, the 2 groups with more background info about the surgery exhibited considerably less stress than the groups who had no information, or were led to focus on the pain experienced 5. In general, what are the characteristics of events that are considered by most people to be stressful? a. Negative events b. Uncontrollable and unpredictable events i. You don’t necessarily need to have control, it just needs to seem like you do c. Ambiguous events i. Hard to “primarily appraise” if the situation is ambiguous – it keeps you guessing ii. Role ambiguity 1. Don’t know where you ‘fit’ in the scheme of things 2. A good example is of a student taking a class where the professor gives no outline – they don’t know what is expected of them d. Overload
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i. Too much going on with too little time to do it = more stress! 6. In what way is the idea of ‘appraisal’ a problem for the Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (recall that this was a scale designed to measure stress resulting from major life events)? Are there other problems with this scale?
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