ANTHRO 1 FINAL STUDY GUIDE

ANTHRO 1 FINAL STUDY GUIDE - ANTHRO 1 FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1)...

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ANTHRO 1 FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1) Epochs of the Cenozoic Era a) Paliocene (65-54 mya) i) Not quite primates b) Eocene (54-34 mya) i) Adapids & omomyids ii) 1 st true primates c) Oligocene (34-23 mya) i) 1 st anthropoids (1) Catarrhines (2) 2.1.2.3 dental structure d) Miocene (23-5 mya) i) Definite hominoids ii) Flourished in E. Africa 2) Big picture from Miocene Apes a) Wide variety, probably w/ no direct descendents b) c) Possible that ancestor to African apes came from Europe, but need more fossil evidence 3) Australopithecines a) Lucy (found in ’74) b) Illustrates mosaic nature of hominid evolution
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i) Head of ape, body of person ii) Sexually dimorphic in body size 4) Key derived traits for early hominids relate to bipedalism a) Afarensis b) Apes can walk bipedally, humans have “striding gait” i) Not waddled ii) Some challenges (1) Holding body up (heavy head!) (2) Getting foot to clearn ground (3) Keeping balanced c) Cranium d) Location of foramen magnum is under skull in bipeds i) Neck muscles stronger for holding up head 5) Bipedal traits in humans a) Curved spinal column brings body weight over feet i) Centers balance ii) S shape b) c) Thigh bone angles inward i) Positions knee @ midline of body d) Bigger knee joints
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i) Body weight is distributed over 2 instead of 4 legs e) Non-grasping big toe is in line w/ other toes i) Gives us the ability to “toe off” when taking a step 6) Australopithecines a) Piltdown man i) 1911 – AKA “Dawn Man” – FAMOUS HOAX b) Australopithecus africanus i) Taung child (1924) ii) Came from S. African limestone rock quarry iii) Small brain, human-like teeth, bipedal c) Afarensis i) 1970s in Ethiopia ii) Intermediate diastema iii) Ape-like dental arcade iv) Bipedal knee v) Human-like pelvis vi) Convergent big toe, curved finger bones vii) Prognathic face, shallow jaw joint d) Anamensis i) Horizontal ankle joint ii) Primitive jaws & teeth, but thick enamel & small canine
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ANTHRO 1 FINAL STUDY GUIDE - ANTHRO 1 FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1)...

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