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ANTHRO 1 STUDY GUIDE

ANTHRO 1 STUDY GUIDE - ANTHRO 1 STUDY GUIDE Sample short...

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ANTHRO 1 STUDY GUIDE Sample short questions 1) Which of the following is NOT a part of Darwin’s theory of natural selection? o A) struggle for existence o B) variation across individuals o C) Some variation impacts reproductive success o D) A gradual progression to perfect forms o E) All of the above are in fact a part of Darwin’s theory 2) Name and briefly describe the 2 principles that Mendel derived from his experiments w/ pea plants. (Don’t forget corrections that should have been made to the textbook!) o 1) Characteristics of an organism are determined by 2 particles, one from the mother & one from the father. Later these particles were termed “genes”. Each gene is equally likely to be transmitted when gametes are formed, a process called segregation. o 2) 3) What is the model of allopatric speciation and which species concept fits best w/ this model? o Occurs when a population is divided by some type of barrier, and different parts of the population adapt to different environments o The species concept that fits best with this model is that of the beak size of the Galapagos finches 4) All of the following would let you distinguish a Platyrrhine from a Catarrhine species EXCEPT: o A) The continent the species lives on (P = NW, C = OW) o B) The # of premolars the species possesses (P = 3, C = 2) o C) the average group size for the species o D)Whether its nostrils point downwards or outwards (P = round, C = down & narrow) o E) None of the above List 3 socioecological differences between chimps and bonobos o Chimps
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Females usually disperse from natal groups when they reach sexual maturity & males remain in their natal groups throughout their lives Rarely found together in unified group Strongest social bonds among adults are formed among males o Bonobos Males disperse & females are tight-knit Often in groups Strongest bonds among females Ch. 1 Key Words Natural selection o Produces adaptation o 3 postulates: 1) availability of resources is limited 2) Organisms vary in the ability to survive & reproduce 3) traits that influence survival and reproduction are transmitted from parents to offspring o When these 3 things hold, natural selection produces an adaptation Morphology o An organism’s size, shape, and composition Stabilizing selection o Produces a state of equilibrium Species o Dynamic population of individuals Fecundity o Ability to produce offspring o High-fecundity females have high-fecundity daughters (same for low) Continuous variation o Ex: Distribution of heights in people o Grade smoothly from one extreme to the next, with all intermediate types represented
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Discontinuous variation o A number of distinct types exist w/ no intermediates o Ex: achondroplasia Causes affected individuals to be much shorter than others Convergence o Evolution of similar adaptations in unrelated groups of animals Blending inheritance o
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