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Unformatted text preview: Charlemagne/Carolingian Empire- Leader of Frankish Empire during late 8 th century (768-814). Spread Christianity along with conquest to create Frankish authority. He was crowned emperor of the Romans, which meant an alliance with the papacy. He standardized monetary system in his empire. Led reform in handwriting in what was known as Carolingian Miniscule, which is the writing style we use today. His main plan involved, in essence making his empire knowledgeable. He set up new schools with advanced curriculum. As Charlemagne conquered new territories, more religious foundations were established. Promoted more unity by having scholars perfect Latin, so as to make it more accessible to people, thus making trade easier. Upon his death, his empire was left to his son, Louis the Pious (814-840), but he lost control to his 3 sons (Lothar, Louis, and Charles). The empire was divided at the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Due to the division of the empire, the Carolingian empire was more prone to invasions at the hands of the Muslims, the Magyars, and especially the Vikings. Homage- pertaining to feudalism, it is an oath sworn by a vassal to the lord, acknowledging allegiance to said lord. The vassal took the oath by placing his hands within the hands of the lord. Changed nature of warfare, since lord now had oaths from many vassals to fight for him. This altered power structure. Relations between nobility and monarch became more personal and private. Investiture- the ability over who has the authority to appoint bishops and invest them with their spiritual symbols of office, the ring and the staff. The power to do so was fought over by the pope Gregory VII and the German emperor king Henry IV. Subinfeudation- king to vassals and sub-vassals. One person could be lord and vassal at the same time. A single person could be vassal to several lords at same time. Essentially a Carolingian institution which spread to all of Europe. Primogeniture- custom of having the firstborn son inheriting the fief. Daughters usually inherited the fief if there were no sons. Kept estates intact, and led to the younger men entering the church or fighting in a war for land. Demesne- land, worked by serfs, that the lord held for his own crops and profit Serf- free peasants that became serfs. Serfs cannot be bought or sold. They are tied to the land, and tend to the lords land. Serfs rented land from the lord to cultivate to produce their own crops. In addition, they owed work for the lord and various gifts of produce. Hugh Capet (r. 987-996) secured royal domain, used courts to set legal precedents. Used rights to appoint bishops and abbots to gain leverage. Believed that crown was gained by hereditary right and not by election Robert the Pious (996-1030) First French king to display royal touch cured scrofula, which made him famous like the Beatles. Reduced role of nobility electing king, through the idea of hereditary office....
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- Winter '07