midterm study guide

midterm study guide - Who was Thrasymachus and what was his...

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Who was Thrasymachus and what was his theory of justice? Thrasymachus contends that justice is simply the will of the stronger , so there is no inspiring standard of justice. The underlying assumption is that governments are put in place to serve the interests of the rulers - - who are few compared with their subjects Who was Glaucon and what did he have to say? How was it similar to Hobbes? The purpose of govt. is to get people to cooperate. This requires that government be allowed to use coercion, including taxation, to ensure that individuals act in a socially preferred way. What did John Locke contribute to the discussion? Social Contract Theory Diagram the following situation: Nevada tries to take advantage of California’s energy woes by raising the wholesale rates of electricity that it sells to California’s power companies. California, on the other hand, tries to protect its tourism industry by banning promotions touting Las Vegas Resorts. Suppose Nevada retaliates with further rate hikes, California retaliates in turn, so that their actions lead to a recession in both states [assume the following payouts: 10 for best outcome, 5 for second best outcome, -5 for second worst outcome, and –10 for worst outcome]. What is this game called? Identify the three explanations for government. 1. To impose the rulers’ will. 2. To help subjects attain their own goals by solving cooperation problems. They arise when something is costly enough to the doer that no one wants to do it but beneficial enough to others that everyone wants it done. 3. To help subjects attain their own goals by solving coordination problems. They arise when a common goal requires that all follow the same plan, but the feasible plans are more than one and incompatible. What is Social Contract Theory and what three theorists developed the idea? Developed by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The Social Contract Theory states that The basic idea is that government is the creature of a unanimous agreement, a “social contract,” to solve cooperation problems by coercing us all to cooperate with each other. o How do Hobbes and Locke differ? Locke thought that by doing such things as voting, not emigrating, etc., citizens implicitly endorsed the social contract. Hobbes saw the absence of government, or “state of nature,” as a prisoners’ dilemma (PD) to be solved by unanimously contracting to obey a king, or “sovereign.” ???o What are two important implications of Social Contract Theory and how are they related to transaction/conformity costs? 1) Cooperation Problem 2) Coordination Problem Know the different types of government.
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The US is limited, representative, and democratic 1) Representative: Elected govt. Not all people necessarily get to vote, not very democratic. Opposite Authoritarian: Government’s will imposed on the people, not responsible to those it governs 2) Democratic: Ultimate power held by the people. Opposite Autocratic: one-man rule,
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midterm study guide - Who was Thrasymachus and what was his...

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