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Unformatted text preview: The News Media: Communicating Political Images Chapter 10 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 1 Related Links Simulation: Election: Running for Cong Participate: Wetlands vs. Tuition Simulation: Policymaking: Immigration Debate: National security is more impo 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 2 The News Media The "news" is an account of current events that are: Timely (unfolding) Dramatic (striking) Compelling (arouse emotions) 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 3 The "Press" or News Media Made up of many elements Broadcast networks Cable networks Newspapers News magazines Internet sites All hold a privileged position in the U.S.
4 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates Historical Development: From Partisanship to Objective Journalism Early newspapers were funded with party support Newspapers so expensive, only elite could afford Era of "partisan press" When printing press and telegraph invented, costs dropped and editors had more funding options Expanded advertising Greater circulation 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 5 "Yellow Journalism" Newsprint and power-driven presses increased circulation Competition for even more readers led to "yellow journalism" Some believe sensational, inaccurate reporting about cruel Spanish rule in Cuba and the sinking of the Maine led to the Spanish-American War (see http://www.humboldt.edu/~jcb10/spanwar.shtml) 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 6 Yellow journalism was characterized by its sensationalism. William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal whipped up public support for a war in Cuba against Spain through inflammatory reporting on the sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898. 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 7 Objective Journalism Yellow journalism excesses led some publishers to objective reporting Reporters to use facts and present all sides of a debate Style was mostly descriptive, letting readers make their own analysis New York Times was the leader Journalism schools in universities founded 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 8 The Politics of America's News Media Newspapers about 1,500 in U.S. today All tend to cover same national stories Usually partisan only on editorial pages Dependent on wire services, particularly the Associated Press (AP) Largest papers generate their own national news New York Times Wall Street Journal Washington Post Los Angeles Times Chicago Tribune 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 9 The Politics of America's News Media Broadcast News -- radio was the first truly national mass medium Newspapers basically were local Television followed radio in the 1950s as leading political medium First news broadcasts brief; 1970s brought 24/7 coverage with CNN. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to make effective use of the radio to communicate directly with the American people.
10 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates Radio Talk Shows Relatively new development is radio talk shows (
click for link to top 100 shows) 1/6 of American public claim to listen regularly Do not have to follow "Fairness Doctrine," so do not have to present both sides of an issue Conservative shows like Rush Limbaugh most popular National Public Radio established to provide nonpartisan coverage 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 11 Television Network News More expensive than radio, so local stations usually do local news National news coverage started by ABC, CBS, and NBC Cover same stories because of a "common understanding" of what makes a good story Frequently accused of being "liberal media" Studies have shown most bias is for negative news 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 12 Cable Television Cable not subject to the Fairness Doctrine When CNN founded, pledged to do so FOX designed to appeal to conservatives FOX most highly rated and has 1 million viewers to CNN's 700,000 More Republicans watch FOX 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 13 The Internet Provides another avenue for "free press" Modern version of colonial citizen pamphlet Individuals can lead campaigns on any issue Link to Jody William's land mine internet campaign Traditional news outlets have sites Also have blogs, such as The Drudge Report that mixes news and opinion 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 14 The News Media as Link: Roles the Press Can and Cannot Perform Well Partisanship is accepted in editorials and on talk shows but discouraged in reporting Media driven by search for interesting stories Has responsibility to public in several roles: Signaling Common carrier Watchdog And to lesser extent, public representative 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 15 The Signaling Role Alerts public to important developments As signaler, the press has the ability to focus public attention on an issue Agenda setting because of coverage 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 16 The Common Carrier Role The press provides a way for political leaders to communicate with the public A way to focus the public's attention and give out information May have "spin" in press releases from officials Journalists today do much more interpreting than in past 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 17 The Watchdog Role The press investigates government and exposes wrongdoing Iraq prisons Watergate Iran-Contra Pentagon Papers Secret monitoring of international banking 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 18 Conflicting Roles Inherent conflict between watchdog and common carrier roles Watchdogs are skeptics who keep newsmakers at arm's length Common carriers must develop good relationships with newsmakers 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 19 The Public Representative Role Some believe press should be spokesman and advocate for public Press not well suited for this role Not subject to public accountability Does not represent a specific point of view Looks for stories, ratings, and profits 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 20 Organizing the Public in the Media Age Democracy can't operate without a free press The news can raise public awareness as a prelude to action --- but the public must organize to achieve that action Role of political parties and interest groups 2007 Susan Roomberg, SKR Associates 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course POL 1013.007 taught by Professor Calder during the Spring '08 term at The University of Texas at San Antonio- San Antonio.
- Spring '08