april fools - Notes bio112 LOWEST TEST GRADE WILL BE...

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Notes bio112 LOWEST TEST GRADE WILL BE DROPPED JOURNAL ASSIGNMENT 3 and 4 DUE 4/15 Points: Excretion -mammalian kidney -structure and function -urine production -urine concentration -osmolarity gradient in kidney -regulation -of excretion -of blood pressure in kidney Endocrine system -hormone function -endocrine review -Hypothalamus –pituitary axis -stress response 1. Nephron many in kidney Glomulerus Bowmans capsule Prox tuble
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Loop of henle Distal tubule Collecting duct (end) then to bladder Anatomy and physiology tightly related Glom cap network sits inside the bow. Capsule which is the beginning of the tube 2. prox 3. loop of hen 4. DISTAL tuble
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5. collecting duct How does it work? -gradient exisits Outside to in osmolatiry gradient -of tissues, the osmolatriy will increase from cortex to medulla 1. pressure filtration 2. glom. Is under high pressure -has tiny holes -sive - pores with a lot of pressure and everything will get pushed into bowmans capsule -liquid in bowmans filtrate mostly water -lots of salts and ions -h2o -hco3 -h+ etc Pressure filter everything and take bak what you want Actively pumping back into blood out of the filtrate in the prox tubule things that we want -at this point we could be done ( simple vert) -humans aren’t -evolution of dry habitat Kindey good at h2o conversation Diabetic sweet urine
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Filtratre moves into decending loop Regaining of water by osmosis Decending permeable to h2o not solutes -hyperosmotic As you move up permeable to slat not h20 2. distal tubule Active regulation of salt and ion conceration -hormone dependant -regualtion of ion concertation 3. collecting duct Permeable to h2o but degree to which it is permeable is hormone dependant -water will leave by osmosis FROM BOOK: From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look In this section we will concentrate on how the filtrate becomes urine as it flows through the mammalian nephron and collecting duct. The circled numbers correspond to the numbers in Figure 44.14. 1 Proximal tubule. Secretion and reabsorption in the proximal tubule substantially alter the volume and composition of filtrate. For example, the cells of the transport epithelium help maintain a relatively constant pH in body fluids by the controlled secretion of H + . The cells also synthesize and secrete ammonia, which neutralizes the acid and keeps the filtrate from becoming too acidic. The more acidic the filtrate, the more ammonia the cells produce and secrete, and the urine of a mammal usually contains some ammonia from this source (even though most nitrogenous waste is excreted as urea). The proximal tubules also reabsorb about 90% of the important buffer bicarbonate (HCO 3 ). Drugs and other poisons that have been processed in the liver pass from the peritubular capillaries into the interstitial fluid, and then are secreted across the epithelium of the proximal tubule into the nephron′s lumen. Conversely, valuable nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and potassium (K +
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april fools - Notes bio112 LOWEST TEST GRADE WILL BE...

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