march 27 - Isabel Wallisch Bio 112 notes March 27 2008...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Isabel Wallisch Bio 112 notes March 27 2008 Comparing vertebrates - Figure 41.27 The digestive tracts of a carnivore (coyote) and herbivore (koala) compared. Although these two mammals are about the same size, the koala s intestines are much longer, an adaptation that enhances processing of fibrous, protein–poor eucalyptus leaves from which it obtains virtually all its food and water. Extensive chewing chops the leaves into very small pieces, increasing exposure of the food to digestive juices. The koala s cecum—at 2 m, the longest of any animal of equivalent size—functions as a fermentation chamber where symbiotic bacteria convert the shredded leaves into a more nutritious diet. Problem: Animals can’t digest cellulose 1. Carnivores a. Have long small intestine with a small cecum 2. Herbivores a. Very long cecum and a shorter small intestine 3. In the colon there are colonies of bacteria that break down what can’t normally be broken down in digestion a. This is where the bulk of digestion occurs 4. See figure above
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Specialized Animals 1. Cows a. Have multiple guts that regurgitate and make more mechanical digestion so that the cow can obtain all the nutrients of their food b. Have 7 stomachs (multiple guts) -Called “fore- gut fermentation” Regulating the Internal Environment Terms: Osmoregualtion how animals regulate a solute balance and the gain and loss of water Osmolarity- concentration of solutes per volume of fluid Isoomsmotic have same concentration per volume of solutes Hyperosmotic is greater than hypoosmotic (Higher osmolarity > LOWER osmolarity) 1. Excretion a. Elimination of nitrogen containing waste b. Removal of the AMINE GROUP c. Done a couple of ways i. Aquatic done mostly by bony fishes NOT SHARKS 1. Release ammonia to the surrounding water which is very toxic ii. Mammals, amphibians, sharks, some bony fishes excrete urea which is less toxic iii. Many reptiles, birds, insects, land snails uric acid which is less toxic d. Getting rid of wastes has a HUGE impact on the water balance Animal cells are very sensitive to changes in osmolarity - if there is too much out of the cell, the cell will die - if there is too much into the cell, the cell will burst * can be a life or death thing in many animals *
Background image of page 2
Adaptations Isoomsmotic with the environment 1. osmoconformers Isoomsmotic with the rest of the environment a. marine animals only 2. osmoregulator hypo or Hyperosmotic as compared to the environment (marine, fresh water, terrestrial) a. expensive in relation to the required active transport of solutes Examples of Osmoregulator in fresh water and salt water fish -the marine fish are hypoosmotic to the seawater - the water will leave the fishes’ body by osmosis into the surroundings, which can then be received back by drinking - the salt moves out of the gills by the transport of Chlorine and Sodium - flows passively -marine hypo osmotic to seawater ***SHARKS LIMIT H20 LOSS BY MAINTAINING HI SOULTE CONCENTRATION BY
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 112 taught by Professor Pritchard during the Spring '08 term at CofC.

Page1 / 10

march 27 - Isabel Wallisch Bio 112 notes March 27 2008...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online