Bio190-Ecology

Bio190-Ecology - Ecology and the Biosphere Themes 1 Scope...

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Ecology and the Biosphere – Themes 1. Scope of Ecology 2. Factors Affecting Organism Distribution 1. Scope of Ecology Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment 1) Interactions between organisms and their environments determine the distribution and abundance of organisms 0. The environment of any organism includes the following components: 0. Abiotic factors: non-living chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients 1. Biotic factors: the living components b. Ecology and evolutionary biology are closely related sciences 0. Ecological Interactions —> Evolutionary Responses 0. Events that occur in ecological time (minutes, months, years) translate into effects over the longer scale of evolutionary time (decades, centuries, millennia) c. Ecological Hierarchy: 0. Ecological interactions range from the adaptations of individual organisms to the dynamics of the biosphere i. Organismal ecology is concerned with the behavioral, physiological, and morphological ways individuals interact with the environment ii. Population ecology examines factors that affect population size and composition a population is a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area 3) Community ecology examines the interactions between populations, and how they affect community structure and organization a community consists of all the organisms of all species that inhabit a particular area 4) Ecosystem ecology examines the energy flow and cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic components an ecosystem consists of all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species that exist in a certain area
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Bio190-Ecology - Ecology and the Biosphere Themes 1 Scope...

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