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Final Exam Sample Essays Fall 07 MCB181R Dr. Jorstad

Final Exam Sample Essays Fall 07 MCB181R Dr. Jorstad -...

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MCB 181 Summer 2007 Jorstad Potential Final Exam Short Essay Questions 1. What effect does protein binding to molecules such as signal ligands, substrates, phosphate groups, etc., have on protein shape? Why? What effect does this have on protein function? 2. What kinds of bonds make up the structure of DNA molecules, and what sense does this make regarding DNA functions? 3. What do enzymes “feel” about their substrates? Using the example of RNA pol and the promoter region of a gene, explain how the affinity of the two for one another could change. 4. What are the possible outcomes of a mutation in a somatic cell, compared to the possible outcomes of a mutation in a germ-line cell? 5. What are the sources of genetic variation in sexually-reproducing organisms? 6. What are the differences between reproductive and therapeutic cloning? Between
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Unformatted text preview: embryonic and adult stem cells? What are the practical and ethical issues involved in developing the use of these two different sources of stem cells for therapeutic purposes? 7. Why do cells need to regulate the concentrations of gene products (proteins)? are Describe 10 different ways in which eukaryotic cells do this. 8. What is it about epithelial cells (like those in lungs, skin, and gut) that make them so susceptible to cancer? 9. Describe what a chromosome looks like during various parts of the cell cycle, including G1, after S, during mitosis before and after anaphase. (Does a chromosome look like a piece of spaghetti wrapped around histones, like an X, like an O…or something else?) 10. How is it that human cells can make over 100,000 proteins with only 25,000 genes? (There is more than one part to a complete answer)...
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