History 101 Class Notes - Class 1 History 101 014 ad = anno domini bce= before common era ce= common era Ancient(500 bce 500 ce near east Greece and

History 101 Class Notes - Class 1 History 101 014 ad = anno...

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Class 1 History 101 - 014 ad = anno domini bce= before common era ce= common era Ancient - (500 bce - 500 ce) near east, Greece and Rome Medieval - early modern (500 ce - 1700 ce) Western Europe Class 2 Sumer ( Mesopotamia) (Southern Iraq) - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers c3000 bce: Uruk period c2500 bce: Dynastic period c1200-1700 bce: conquest and diffusion "Cuneiform" (c.3500-2500 bce) Earliest form of writings o Clay tablet o Sand & water o Wedge writing Evolving - images of things evolve to ideas, then to sounds 10000^ of tablets There were stone writings also Code of Hammurabi, c. 1750 bce (stone law code) First writing system, religion, law code, government (Sumerians) Harsh desert o Rivers flood Cities: Uruk (1000 acres-size of UA), Lagash Fierce competition between cities because of limited resources Power (Ensi - big shot leader, Lugal-king) War - quick way to gain power/money, gain honor Farmers, Merchants, Shopkeepers-some women, Slaves (captives of war, debt) Ziggurat of Ur (c. 2100 bce) giant building/temple Religion (enlil-sky god, utu-sun god, enki-water god) ceremony-bbq for gods Literature o Epic of Gilgamesh, c.2700 bce King of Uruk Journey for glory Bromance He fails Even for the greatest of heroes, the meaning of life is to die Priests wrote mostly o Recording donations, god feedings, stories Science and math-six based number system (seasons, stars-worship purpose) angles and pressure for farming and building Egypt - Nile River Old Kingdom (c.2770-2200 bce) Middle Kingdom (c.2050-1786 bce)
New Kingdom (c.1560-1087 bce) Pyramid of Giza (c. 2500 bce) Inscription: the Palermo stone & the Rosetta Stone (hyrogrific, domotic- everyday, Greek passages) Papara- easy to write on Nile river is crucial-flooding is less violent & more predictable More coherent and manageable than Sumerians "Nomes": administrative centers, governed by "nomarchs"... o Network of cities-irrigation, taxes, keep peace Upper Egypt is south (c. 22 Nomes) due to river flow Lower Egypt is north (c.20 Nomes) Time periods tell stories of leaders (pharaohs) "Pharaoh" - leader of the "great household" Ma ‘at - harmony, all the follow, order, justice Pharaoh had 1 job- make sure sun goes up and down Tombs - preserve harmony in the universe by providing transition for pharaohs from life to afterlife Giza- 2 millions blocks- big ones weigh 15 tons - within inches of being perfect Science, math, & medicine - doctors setting bones & treating burn wounds The Book of the Dead - how to book about transition to afterlife Private Life - everyday letters Egypt - one of most wealthy & useful places Class 3 Akkad King (sargon) captured and conquered city states (umma, lagash, Uruk, Sumer, eridu, Babylonia) Near Eastern Empires Old Babylon (c. 2000 BCE) The Hittites (c. 1200 BCE) - violent, cuneiform, legal records - quickly eliminated From bronze (copper and tin-abandoned near 1000) to iron (more abundant-slowly refined over time) The Assyrians (c. 900-700 BCE) - Built massive empire - very violent - first to truly use iron (experiment with steel) - war horses - brutal - proud -hang skin of dead bodies on city walls - resistance - overthrown by Neos The Neo-Babylonians (c.700-550 BCE) looked for old empire (Hammurabi) -

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