Tro - Chapter 15

Tro - Chapter 15 - 15.1 Without looking in the text or in...

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15.1 Without looking in the text or in your notes, list the strong acids and the strong bases. 15.2 Using balanced chemical equations show how each of the following serves as an Arrhenius acid or base when dissolved in water. (a) HCl (b) HNO 2 (c) NaOH (d) Ca (OH) 2 (e) NH 3 15.3 Name the following acids. (a) HNO 2 (b) CH 3 COOH (c) H 3 PO 4 (d) H 2 CO 3 (e) HF 15.5 Define a Brønsted-Lowry base and give two examples. 15.6 (a) Define a conjugate acid-base pair. (b) What are the members of the conjugate acid base pair for hypochlorous acid, HClO? (c) What are the members of the conjugate acid-base pair for oxalic acid, H 2 C 2 O 4 ?
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15.7 List the formulas of the conjugate base for each of the following Brønsted-Lowry acids: (a) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (b) HClO 3 (c) H 2 CO 3 (d) HCO 3 - (e) PH 4 + 15.9 Nitric acid, HNO 3 , will react with potassium hydroxide, KOH, to form the salt potassium nitrate, KNO 3 , and water. Why is potassium nitrate a salt? 15.10 (a) Why can we assume that H + (aq) and H 3 O + are analogous? (b) Hydrogen ions are present in what form in aqueous solution? 15.12 Predict which of the following acids is the weakest, and which is the strongest: HNO 3 HClO 2 HIO HC 2 H 3 O 2 15.14 Predict which member of the following pairs would have stronger Brønsted-Lowry conjugate acid. Explain your predictions. (a) HCO 3 - or Br - (b) ClO 3 - or CO 3 2- (c) H 2 PO 4 - or HSO 4 - (d) HSO 3 - or SO 3 2- (e) NH 3 or NH 2 - 15.15 What equilibrium constant is present whenever liquid water is present?
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15.17 Why is there no term in the denominator of the Kw expression? 15.18 Ammonia, like water, undergoes auto-ionization. The conjugate acid of ammonia is the ammonium ion, NH 4 + , and the conjugate base is the amide ion, NH 2 - . (a) Write a balanced equilibrium reaction equation to illustrate the auto-ionization of ammonia. (b) Write a mass action expression, which is analogous to Kw, for this equilibrium. 15.19 Label each of the following solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral (a) [H + ] = [OH - ] (b) [H + ] = 0.0000000075 M (c) [OH - ] = 0.00000800 M (d) 3.0 x 10 -8 M OH - (e) 7.5 x 10 -6 M H + 15.20 Determine the hydroxide ion concentration in each of the following solutions: (a) 0.0150 M H + (aq) (b) 1.7 x 10 -10 M H + (aq) (c) 1.0 x 10 -14 M H + (aq) (d) 1.0 M H + (aq) (e) A solution with a [OH - ] that is 50.0 times that of the [H + ] 15.21 Determine the hydrogen ion concentration in each of the following solutions: (a) 5.5 x 10 -12 M OH - (b) 4.25 M OH -
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(c) 1.0 x 10
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Tro - Chapter 15 - 15.1 Without looking in the text or in...

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