soc168essay-1 - Nandaputra Harsono 860475310 6.1.07...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nandaputra Harsono 860475310 6.1.07 Sociology 168 TA: J. Simmers The theoretical analysis that I am focusing is based on Karl’s Marx ideal of alienation versus Emile Durkheim’s ideal of anomie. I have explained what each sociologist believes in his works and quoted other authors as well. Marx’s theory of alienation is the idea that a worker will eventually feel estranged from his own life because of the repetitive daily work life. Whereas, Durkheim states that if an individual in society does not have his needs fulfilled he/she will lead to deviance and to anomie within the society. I have also used their views to show divergence between the two theories.
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim both have their respective theories on the idea of human individuality and its integration or lack thereof into society as a whole. According to Wolff J. (2003), “Marx famously depicts the worker under capitalism as suffering from four types of alienated labor. First, from the product, this as soon as it is created is taken away from its producer. Second, in productive activity (work) this is experienced as a torment. Third, from species-being, for humans produce blindly and not in accordance with their truly human powers. Finally from other human beings, where the relation of exchange replaces mutual need.” Emile Durkheim’s theory of anomie is quite similar to Karl Marx’s alienation, yet notably different as well. “Industrialization in particular, according to Durkheim, tends to dissolve restraints on the passions of humans. Where traditional societies--primarily through religion--successfully taught people to control their desires and goals, modern industrial societies separate people and weaken social bonds because of increased complexity and the division of labor.” (Giddens 1972: 173) This is especially evident in modern society where computer technology, the internet, increasing bureaucracy, and specialization separate and divide in the workplace. Perhaps more ever than before, members of Western society are exposed to the risk of anomie. Although Marx and Durkheim may share similar ideas of how an individual may be separated from society, their theories diverge from one another on the cause of separation-- Marx identifies i the exploitation stemmed from harsh labor and alienation; while Durkheim focuses on the loss of norms or the anomie as the culprit. To Marx, all major institutional spheres in capitalist society such as religion, the state, and political economy, are marked by a state of alienation. Furthermore, these
Image of page 2
various aspects of alienation are interdependent. In Marx’s eyes, "Objectification is the practice of alienation. Just as man, so long as he is engrossed in religion, can only objectify his essence by an alien and fantastic being under the sway of egoistic need. He can only affirm himself and produce objects in practice by subordinating his products and his own activity to the domination of an alien entity, and by attributing to them the significance of an alien entity, namely money." (Bottomore 1964: 39)
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern