soc168essay-1

Soc168essay-1 - Nandaputra Harsono 860475310 6.1.07 Sociology 168 TA J Simmers The theoretical analysis that I am focusing is based on Karl's Marx

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Nandaputra Harsono 860475310 6.1.07 Sociology 168 TA: J. Simmers The theoretical analysis that I am focusing is based on Karl’s Marx ideal of alienation versus Emile Durkheim’s ideal of anomie. I have explained what each sociologist believes in his works and quoted other authors as well. Marx’s theory of alienation is the idea that a worker will eventually feel estranged from his own life because of the repetitive daily work life. Whereas, Durkheim states that if an individual in society does not have his needs fulfilled he/she will lead to deviance and to anomie within the society. I have also used their views to show divergence between the two theories.
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Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim both have their respective theories on the idea of human individuality and its integration or lack thereof into society as a whole. According to Wolff J. (2003), “Marx famously depicts the worker under capitalism as suffering from four types of alienated labor. First, from the product, this as soon as it is created is taken away from its producer. Second, in productive activity (work) this is experienced as a torment. Third, from species-being, for humans produce blindly and not in accordance with their truly human powers. Finally from other human beings, where the relation of exchange replaces mutual need.” Emile Durkheim’s theory of anomie is quite similar to Karl Marx’s alienation, yet notably different as well. “Industrialization in particular, according to Durkheim, tends to dissolve restraints on the passions of humans. Where traditional societies--primarily through religion--successfully taught people to control their desires and goals, modern industrial societies separate people and weaken social bonds because of increased complexity and the division of labor.” (Giddens 1972: 173) This is especially evident in modern society where computer technology, the internet, increasing bureaucracy, and specialization separate and divide in the workplace. Perhaps more ever than before, members of Western society are exposed to the risk of anomie. Although Marx and Durkheim may share similar ideas of how an individual may be separated from society, their theories diverge from one another on the cause of separation-- Marx identifies i the exploitation stemmed from harsh labor and alienation; while Durkheim focuses on the loss of norms or the anomie as the culprit. To Marx, all major institutional spheres in capitalist society such as religion, the state, and political economy, are marked by a state of alienation. Furthermore, these
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various aspects of alienation are interdependent. In Marx’s eyes, "Objectification is the practice of alienation. Just as man, so long as he is engrossed in religion, can only objectify his essence by an alien and fantastic being under the sway of egoistic need. He can only affirm himself and produce objects in practice by subordinating his products and his own activity to the domination of an alien entity, and by attributing to them the
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This essay was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course SOC 168 taught by Professor Lio during the Spring '07 term at UC Riverside.

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Soc168essay-1 - Nandaputra Harsono 860475310 6.1.07 Sociology 168 TA J Simmers The theoretical analysis that I am focusing is based on Karl's Marx

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