Chpt13 - Spinal Cord (CNS) (extension of medulla oblongata...

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Spinal Cord (CNS) (extension of medulla oblongata of brain) Together with brain forms the CNS
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I. Functions 1. spinal cord = reflexes, quick automatic responses to changes in environment, e.g. hot drop – involves only neurons in spinal nerves & cord 2. integration (summing) of inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic impulses 3. tracts for up-to-brain travel of sensory impulses and down-from-brain travel of motor impulses
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II. Protective Structures (surrounds delicate nervous tissue of spinal cord) 1. Vertebral column & ligaments (cnnt tissue) 2. Meninges (cnnt tissue) 3. Cerebrospinal fluid (prod in brain)
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1 2 3 4 fat cushion 8 (interstitial fluid in subdural space between) vertebra 7* outer middle pia mater arachnoid dura mater 3 cnnt tissue meninges Spinal cord meninges continuous with cranial meninges encircling brain (between dura mater & vert col) (Extensions pia mater suspend spinal cord ) Denticulate ligaments 6 5 7
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Vertebrae Meninges dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater Spaces epidural space filled with fat & cnnt tissue subdural space filled with interstitial fluid subarachnoid space = CSF (prod brain) epidural space (fat cushion) ( between dura mater & vertebral column)
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Spinal tap or Lumbar Puncture Technique long needle into subarachnoid space
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Purpose sampling CSF for diagnosis Chemistry (prot, glu) Microbiology (stain + culture) Hematology (Cell ct + diff) injection of antibiotics, anesthetics, contrast media for myelography, or chemotherapy measurement of CSF pressure
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http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003369.htm URL for Clinical Laboratory Norms & Significance
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Usual ER CSF Tap Assays Ordered - Cell count : less than 0 to 5 white blood cells and 0 red blood cells - Culture and sensitivity : no organism growth - Protein: 15 to 45 mg/dL - Glucose: 50 to 80 mg/100 mL
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Why the test is performed - May help diagnose meningitis and acute infection of the brain or spinal cord, inflammation or hemorrhage Normal Values - WBC 0 – 5; RBC – 0
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Chpt13 - Spinal Cord (CNS) (extension of medulla oblongata...

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