Chapter 8 - Supply Reduction Interdiction Legislation Legal...

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Unformatted text preview: Supply Reduction Interdiction Legislation Legal penalties Demand Reduction Education Counseling Treatment Harm reduction Drug substitution Needle exchange Change laws Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 1 Supply Reduction Interdict smugglers Tighten border crossings Hire more law enforcement officers Prosecute criminal gangs & drug dealers Support local police Limit supply of chemicals Pass better legislation Disrupt money laundering Help other countries eradicate drug crops Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 2 United States Prison Population 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 Total prison population State prison population Local jail population 500,000 Federal prison population 0 1980 1985 1990 1994 1998 2002 3 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. Demand Reduction Primary prevention Secondary prevention Tertiary prevention Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 4 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 5 30-Day Alcohol, Tobacco, & Drug Use by Pregnancy Status United States - 2001 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Cigarettes Alcohol Any illicit drug Marijuana 6 First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. Placental barrier Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 7 Maternal Risks Anemia, diabetes Sexually transmitted diseases High blood pressure Poor nutrition Needle infections Miscarriage, etc. Fetal & Neonatal Complications High blood pressure Nerve damage Miscarriage, SIDS Physical abnormalities Addiction Needle infections, etc. Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 8 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 9 Adolescent Risk Factors Pregnancy Arrests Poverty Dropping out of school Emotional/mental problems Low self-esteem Drug-using peers Few alternative activities Lack of community direction Permissive family Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 10 U.S. High School Seniors 30-Day Drug Use - 2002 Any illicit drug Heroin Steroids Inhalants Cocaine Hallucinogens MDMA Tranquilizers Amphetamines Smokeless tobacco Marijuana Cigarettes Alcohol 25.4% 0.5% 1.4% 1.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.4% 3.3% 5.5% 6.5% 21.5% 26.9% 48% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 11 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. U.S. High School Seniors 30-Day Drug Use Trend, 1974-2002 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1974 1978 1982 1986 Cigarettes 1990 1995 1999 2002 Marijuana Alcohol 12 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. Past Month Adolescent Heavy Drinking & Emotional/Behavioral Problems Ran away from home Sad, depressed Skipped school Tried to hurt themselves Stole from others Used illicit drugs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 13 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. Heavy drinkers Nondrinkers Perception vs. Reality 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 year 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 14 NIU students: perceived heavy use All colleges: actual heavy use Northern Illinois University students: actual heavy use Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 15 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Pelvic inflammatory disease Gonorrhea Herpes simplex Venereal warts Syphilis Hepatitis B & C Trichomonas vaginalis (vaginitis) Pubic lice Scabies Monila (yeast) Bacterial vaginosis HIV infection Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 16 AIDS - Routes of Exposure in the U. S. Homosexual contact Heterosexual contact Injecting drug use Sexual contact with male IV drug user Others or misreported 46% 11% 25% 6% 12% (Worldwide, heterosexual contact is the number one route of transmission) transmission Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 17 AIDS Cases in the United States 1983-2001 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 18 Cumulative cases New cases Part I - Drug Testing: Detection Period Range Alcohol Amphetamines Barbiturates (most) phenobarbital Benzodiazepines Cocaine Codeine Darvon 1/2 1 day 2 4 days 2 4 days up to 30 days up to 30 days 12 72 hours 1 3 days 6 48 hours 19 Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. Part II - Drug Testing: Detection Period Range - Urine Testing Dilaudid 2 4 days Heroin 2 4 days Marijuana - Single use 1 3 days Casual use - 4 joints/wk 5 7 days Daily use 10 15 days Chronic heavy use 1 2 months Methadone 2 4 days PCP - Casual use 2 7 days Chronic use up to 30 days Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 20 Drug Use Blood Levels (approximation) Amount Alcohol Cocaine Marijuana Days after ingestion Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 21 Drug Use & the Elderly 15% of U.S population is 65 years or older 85% take at least one prescription drug 30% take at least 8 prescription drugs Up to 17% of Americans 60 years or older abuse alcohol & legal drugs Percent of elderly who display signs of alcoholism: 6% to 11% of elderly hospital admissions 14% of elderly emergency room admissions 20% of elderly psychiatric ward admissions Copyright, 2004, CNS Productions, Inc. 22 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course BIO 1033 taught by Professor Joel.martinez,jr.,ph.d. during the Fall '04 term at Texas San Antonio.

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