Chapter 02 - Components of Matter Handout I-1

Chapter 02 - Components of Matter Handout I-1 - 2-1The...

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Unformatted text preview: 2-1The Components of MatterChapter2Atoms, Elements, Molecules, Compounds, and Mixtures2-2Components of Matter: DefinitionsComponents of Matter: DefinitionsElement- the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties An element consists of only one type of atom It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by chemical meansMolecule- a structure that consists of two or more atomsthat are chemically bound together and behaves as an independent unit2-3Compound- a substance composed of two or more elementswhich are chemically combinedMixture- a group of two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically intermingled.Question: is a mixture a compound?Components of Matter: DefinitionsComponents of Matter: Definitions2-4Properties of MatterProperties of Matter2-5Mass LawsMass Laws18thCentury: Emergence of atomic view of matterObservationsLaw of mass conservationMass remains constant during a chemical reactionLaw of constant compositionNo matter the source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by massLaw of multiple proportionsIf element Areacts with element Bto form two different compounds, the different amounts of Bthat react with a fixed amount of Acan be expressed as the ratio of a whole number2-6The Law of Mass ConservationThe Law of Mass ConservationMass remains constant during a chemical reactionMass remains constant during a chemical reactionReaction of lead nitrate with sodium chromateyields lead chromate and sodium nitrate2-7The total massof substances does not changeduring a chemical reactionreactant 1 + reactant 2producttotal masstotal mass=calcium oxide + carbon dioxidecalcium carbonateCaO + CO2CaCO356.08g + 44.00g100.08gLaw of Mass ConservationLaw of Mass Conservation2-8No matter the source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by massLimestone, marble:Limestone, marble: calcium carbonatecalcium carbonateAnalysis by MassAnalysis by Mass(grams/20.0g)(grams/20.0g)8.0 g calcium8.0 g calcium2.4 g carbon2.4 g carbon9.6 g oxygen 9.6 g oxygen 20.0 g20.0 g40% calcium40% calcium12% carbon12% carbon48% oxygen 48% oxygen 100% by mass100% by massLaw of Definite (or Constant) CompositionLaw of Definite (or Constant) CompositionPercent by MassPercent by Mass(parts/100 parts)(parts/100 parts)Mass FractionMass Fraction(parts/1.00 part)(parts/1.00 part)0.40 calcium0.40 calcium0.12 carbon0.12 carbon0.48 oxygen 0.48 oxygen 1.00 part by mass1.00 part by mass2-9Law of Multiple ProportionsLaw of Multiple ProportionsIf element Areacts with element Bto form two different compounds, the different amounts of Bthat react with a fixed amount of Acan be expressed as the ratio of a whole numberExampleCarbon and oxide react to form 2 different compoundscarbon oxides I & IIcarbon oxide I = CO, carbon monoxide carbon oxide II = CO2, carbon dioxideMass analysis to determine identity of compounds...
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Chapter 02 - Components of Matter Handout I-1 - 2-1The...

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