Chapter 04 - I - Ionic Solutions & Precipitation Reactions & II - Acid-Base Reactions

Chapter 04 - I - Ionic Solutions & Precipitation Reactions & II - Acid-Base Reactions

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Unformatted text preview: 4-1Chapter 4Chapter 4The Major Classes of Chemical ReactionsThe Major Classes of Chemical ReactionsI: Ionic Solutions and Precipitation ReactionsI: Ionic Solutions and Precipitation Reactions4-2The Major Classes of Chemical ReactionsThe Major Classes of Chemical Reactions4.14.1Role of Water as a SolventRole of Water as a Solvent4.2 Writing Equations for Aqueous Ionic Reactions4.2 Writing Equations for Aqueous Ionic Reactions4.3 Precipitation Reactions4.3 Precipitation Reactions4.44.4Acid-Base ReactionsAcid-Base Reactions4.54.5Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) ReactionsOxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions4.64.6Elements in Redox ReactionsElements in Redox Reactions4.74.7Reversible Reactions: An Introduction to Chemical EquilibriumReversible Reactions: An Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium4-3The Major Classes of Chemical ReactionsThe Major Classes of Chemical Reactions•Concepts and skills you need–Names and formulas of compounds (section 2.8)–Nature of ionic and covalent bonding (section 2.7)–Mole-mass-number conversions (section 3.1)–Molarity and mole-volume conversions (section 3.5)–Balancing chemical equations (section 3.3)–Calculating amounts of reactants and products (section 3.4)4-4The Role of Water as a SolventThe Role of Water as a Solvent•Many (most) chemical reactions take place in aqueoussolutions–“solutions” are homogeneous mixtures of 2 or more substances–“aqueous solutions” are homogeneous mixtures of a substance and water•water is the solvent(the largest fraction of the mixture)•the other substance(s) is the solute(smallest fraction of the mixture)•Water plays an active and dual role as solvent–strong interaction with some substances facilitates dissolution–active reactant in chemical reactions•Physical-chemical nature of water–water is polar–water has covalent bonds–water forms ions–density of liquid water higher than for solid water (ice)•highest density at 3.97oC ice floats on water4-5Sharing of electrons to form a covalent bond- equal bond in H2- unequal bond in H2O- O attracts bonding electrons stronger than HElectron Distribution in Molecules of HElectron Distribution in Molecules of H22and Hand H22OOO is more “electronegative” than H- creates partially charged poles- H2O is a polar molecule- H2O has a dipole (“2 poles”)- (δ+) and (δ-) pole4-6Ionic Compounds in WaterIonic Compounds in WaterAn ionic solid is held together by opposite electrostatic chargesPolar water replaces the electrostatic interactions by interactions between charged ions and water moleculesSolubility of NaCl in water at 20oC: 365 g/LSolubility of AgCl in water at 20oC: 0.009 g/Lhttp://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/animations/chang_7e_esp/clm2s3_4.swfThe ionic solid becomes “solvated”4-7The Electrical Conductivity of Ionic SolutionsThe Electrical Conductivity of Ionic SolutionsElectrolytes: Substances that Conduct ElectricityElectrolytes: Substances that Conduct Electricity4-8Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Ionic Solutions...
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Chapter 04 - I - Ionic Solutions & Precipitation Reactions & II - Acid-Base Reactions

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